Eruptions of NZ Volcanoes (Inside Volcanoes (Volcano Produce (Fall…
Eruptions of NZ Volcanoes
Magma that flows out into the surface of the Earth where is hardens and cools into lava.
Fast flowing streams that carry volcanic debris, such as rock and ash, from a crater lake down the sides of the volcano.
Fast moving flows of ash and pumice that fountain out of the vent
and are carried by the ground by hot gases called pyroclastic flows.
They are mainly steam and carbon dioxide with less sulfur and chlorine. The gases are only dangerous if one is within one or two kilometers.
Magma and rock in the vent are exploded up into an eruption plume
This rock is moved by wind and rain down from the plume as Fall deposit (also called tephra)
Convergent movement is when one plate is consumed under the other (A.K.A seduction) as the two plates move towards each other.
Transform movement is when two plates rub against each other vertically creating or destroying the plates underneath.
Divergent movement is when two plates move away from each other, forming a gap which the magma underneath fills.
:Layers of volcanoes
Effects of volcanoes on environment
Darkness during day
Seismic waves (because of rock, magma and gas under volcano)
Lead to tsunamis
Rock slides down because of earthquakes or magma movement, so loose materials run off the steep sides.
Inside the Earth
Example of magmic circulation:
7 Major Plates
Why They Move
The tectonic plates are basically the Earth's top layer -the crust. Because the crust lies on the mantle, the movement of the mantle results in the movement of the plates.
The mantle is made up of liquid that circulates in many areas. The plates follow the movement of the mantle which causes collisions between the plates.
Map of major plates:
Layers of the Erath:
Types of Volcanoes
A caldera is formed when a volcano erupts so much lava at once, that the chamber is blown out and left empty. The volcano then collapses into the empty chamber, leaving a crater in its place. This crater is usually filled with water later on creating a lake.
A volcanic field usually consists of groups/clusters of volcano cones/calderas between 10-100 in number.
Volcanic cones are the simple and most well-known type of volcano. They are a triangle shaped hill formed from layers of volcanic ash and lava from eruptions out of the main vent.