Fluid retention, GI bloating and fatigue.
Dyspnea, Exercise intolerance, tachypnea, cough, fatigue. abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, insomnia, mental state changes.
Pulmanory/peripheral edema, tachycardia
Etiology must be determined.
Stage A HF = no structural HD
Treat hypertension and lipid disorders with a ACE inhibitor or in some cases a ARB.
Stage B = Structural HD with no HF symptoms
Use Ace inhibitor/ARB as well as a Beta Blocker.
Stage C = Structural HD with HF symptoms that arent refactory at rest.
Use Diuretics for edema, ACE inhibitor and beta blockers. ARBs, Digoxin, Aldosterone antagonists can also be used in selected patients.
Stage D = Structural HD, with HF symptoms - refcatory at rest.
Continue drug interventions, and end of life care/hospice or even specialized interventions - heart transplant, mechanical support.
Smoking cessation, encourage exercise, decrease alcohol intake, restrict salt intake.
When the CO cant handle the demands of the body or is slow and causes congestion??????????????/
Preventing the onset of clinical/reducing symptoms, preventing/reducing hospitalizations, slowing the progression of disease, improving quality of life, prolonging survival.