Chapter 34: A New Era Begins
Chapter 34: A New Era Begins
Social Changes: In Yugoslavia, the Serbs attacked Bosnia and began a policy called ethnic cleansing toward the Bosnian Muslims. The NATO began involved and started bombing to stop the Serbs. Since Yugoslavia decided to take this course of action and others Yugoslavia no longer exists.
Economic Changes: In Russia, since Vladimir Putin began his reforms Russia has experienced a budget surplus and a growing economy . Russia can attribute most of that to its oil and gas exports. Since these things have been happening Russia has experienced a growing economy, but still faces challenges.
Political Changes: After Gorbachev stopped sending military support to communist countries people started to rebel. In Poland a man named Lech Walsea started a movement called Soliditary against the government and that movement ended 45 years of communist rule. Democracy became the new government of Poland and Lech Walsea was elected president.
Social Changes: After World War 2, the United States dominated most of the world. Music, movies, television, and sports are all part of our popular culture and have began to spread around the world. Some people like this and some do not. Most complaints are that our culture is beginning to get ready of traditions and traditional culture in most cultures.
Political Changes: In Mexico. the Industrial Revolutionary Party had dominated Mexico for 70 years until its popularity began to decline in the 1980s. In 2000 Vicente Fox and the National Action Party defeated the Industrial Revolutionary Party for presidency. This created a multi-party system in Mexico.
Economic Changes: In the United States, Ronald Reagan had spent so much money that he had created a budget deficit. In the following years presidents tried to deal with this budget deficit. Some succeeding some not. The economy started to improve when one president passed tax cuts and made record deficits. However, it began to make a downturn partly because of the home mortgage industry.
Political Changes: Since 1990, many South American countries have changed to democracy. Recently, left-wing governments have gained popularity as Bolivia, Paraguay, and Peru have elected populist leaders.
Economic Changes: In Central America, Haiti has had to deal with the devastating effects of the earthquake and continued poverty. With the Dominican Republic in a better position, they have relied on dominicans for tourism and remittances. Honduras has began the process dematerializing, but has struggles because of a hurricane, a military coup, and continued gang and police violence.
Social Changes: For Central America, they are not doing well socially. Though El Salvador has recently experienced a streak of conservative power most countries are struggling. Most are experiencing the effects of a bloody civil war, gang violence, and poverty.
Political Changes: In Africa they have witnessed a number of women become political leaders and there has also been a trend of multi-party elections. Divisions between Muslims and Christians have ended in violence. This violence has lessened as local officials were able to craft policies that limit some of the harsher aspects of Muslim law.
Social Changes: In Africa AIDS have remained a concern for most people living there. Some African nations have made an effort to fight it. This has involved a number of international health agencies and social service agencies. Most people in Africa are also experiencing poverty and don't have the shelter they need.
Economic Changes: Rapid population growth in Africa has slowed economic growth. As a result of this poverty has remained widespread throughout the region and cities have grown tremendously. Most Africans live in urban areas where there are massive slums and high levels of pollution.
Political Changes: In the Middle East, efforts at peace between Israel and Palestine continue to fail and Iran enforces strict adherence to Islamic law. This law limits basic civil rights and yet Iran signed a deal with powerful countries to limit nuclear development and allow them to oversee their nuclear program.
Social Changes: In Egypt there was a Tiananmen Square Massacre where thousands of people were violently protesting the government. The government then took action and using the military they killed anywhere from 500 to 2000 people and many more were injured.
Economic Changes: In the Middle East, they face ethnic tensions, high unemployment, poverty, poor education, and limited civil rights.
Economic Changes: In China due to population growth they have adopted a one-child policy. China is now also said to be on the way of becoming one of the economic superpowers in the world. However, because of this rapid economic growth there is poor working conditions, low salaries, and labor unrest.
Social Changes: During the 1950s and 1960s, China began to allow women to take more of a part in politics and give them marital rights. After Mao's death, family traditions began to return and people now had more freedom and better living conditions.
Political Changes: In North Korea and South Korea there is still a lot of tension between them mainly due to North Korea's nuclear weapon program. North Korea is still under a military dictatorship and is still struggling economically. However, South Korea is now a democracy and is one of the strongest economies in Asia.
South and Southeast Asia
Social Changes: Conflicts between Hindus and Muslims have continued and religious differences have fueled a long-term dispute between India and Pakistan. The danger escalated when both countries tested nuclear warheads and threats have been made between the two countries.
Economic Changes: India's economy has emerged as one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Economic reforms have fostered foreign investments and began to move India towards a market-based economy. Although agriculture is still the occupation of many Indians, the service and industrial sectors are growing.
Political Changes: During the early 1990s the Congress Party remained the leading party in India. However, its hold began to decline and other parties beg to emerge to take ahold of the government. Growing political instability was aided by the growing political tension between the Hindus and the Muslims. The Congress Party continued to stay in power because they promised to maintain economic growth and carry out reforms in rural areas.
Political Changes: In Germany, Erich Honecker ruled harshly as a member of the Communist Party. Many East Germans fled their country and others led mass demonstrations. When the government opened up its border with the West thousands swarmed across the border to reunite with their family and the Berlin Wall was torn down.
Economic Changes: In Western Europe the European Union was formed to lower unemployment rates and create a common currency. The common currency they ended up creating was the euro. By 2004 the European Union had expanded by adding 12 new members by adding new states that mostly came from the states that broke free from the Soviet Union.
Social Changes: In the West, people started to support the women's movement more. Women started to get more into politics and the work life. Some people supported this movement however others did not. This includes women. Some women did not want the gender roles to change but others were able to balance work and family life.