Types of Proof
Types of Proof
The Traditional Categories of Proof
Definition: it appeals to the audience's reason, understanding, and common sense.
Types of Logical Proof:
Argument From Sign
can be used to prove with certainty.
can be used to prove the probability of a claim
may turn out to be a pseudoproof
Argument Fro Induction
Argument From Cause
It places the subject in a cause-and-effect relationship to show that it is either the cause of an effect or the effect of a cause
Argument From Deduction
Its warrant is a general principle.
Argument From Historical, Literal, or Figurative Analogy
Historical and literal analogies
explore similarities and differences between items in the same general category.
HISTORICAL ANALOGIES: These explain what is going on now in terms of what went on in similar cases in the past.
LITERAL ANALOGIES: These compare two items in the same category: two school systems, two governments, two religions, two individuals.
do the same, only with items in very different categories.
FIGURATIVE ANALOGIES: These compare items from two different categories, as in metaphor, but he points of comparison in a figurative analogy are usually spelled out in more detail than hey are in a metaphor.
Argument From Definition
Argument From Statistics
Statistics describe relationship among data, people, occurrences, and events in the real world, only the do so in quantitative term.
Definition: it appeals to the audience's impressions, opinions, and judgments about the individual stating the argument.
Proof That Builds Credibility:
Argument From Authority
Definition: it is used to appeal to and arouse the feelings of the audience.
Types of Emotional Proof:
: an arguer must state a claim (or a proposition) and prove it.