Changes After The Cold War (Eastern Europe (In 1980, Lech Walesa led a…
Changes After The Cold War
In 1980, Lech Walesa led a solidarity movement in Poland, ending Communist rule.
In 1989, the new government of Czechoslovakia faced many old ethnic conflicts, so the Czechs and the Slovaks agreed to a peaceful division, which split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Communist leader Nicolae Ceausescu's economic policies led to drops in living standards and food shortages, which led to rationing.
South and Southeast Asia
India's economy has emerged as one of the largest and fastest growing. Economic reforms in 1991 brought foreign investment and began to move India towards a market-based economy.
Conflict between Muslims and Hindus has continued, and the religious differences have fueled a long-term dispute between India and Pakistan over a territory between the two countries.
Many Southeast Asian societies are moving towards a democracy. Although, serious issues still remain. Myanmar remains isolated under military rule and although the Philippines is democratic, terrorism still remains a challenge.
The European Union formed in 1993. This union established a common currency, the euro (€). Between 2004 and 2007, the union grew by adding 12 new members(mostly from newly independent countries).
Following the Cold War, leaders in Western Europe experienced many economic troubles, like high unemployment.
In 1990, the Berlin Wall, a symbol of the Cold War, was torn down and the reunification of Germany took place. The countries of the East and West reunited to reform one Germany.
President Reagan's spending policies for the U.S produced government budget deficits.
Canada still struggles with economic issues after approving the North America Free Trade Agreement in 1993. Canada also struggled with the status of Quebec.
In the U.S, the presidential election of 2008 led to change in American politics with the election of Barack Obama. Obama moved to deal with the worst economic recession, the national healthcare legislation, and the war in Afghanistan. Obama was reelected in 2012.
Much of the Middle East faces high unemployment and growing poverty.
The country of Iran enforces a strict adherence to islamic law that limits basic human rights, and it also limits the right of women. After the re-election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, thousands of Iranians protested and declared the election a fraud.
Efforts to create a peace agreement between the Israelis and the Palestines have failed due to continued terrorist attacks and conflicts over territory.
Left-wing governments have gained popularity after countries Bolivia, Paraguay, and Peru elected populist leaders.
In Mexico, high poverty rates, high unemployment, and political corruption have led to a violent drug war that caused the death of 35,000 people.
Economic growth, and increased public education, has helped diminish Latin America's greatest challenge, income inequality, or the gap between the rich and poor.
AIDS remains a huge concern throughout Africa. More than two-thirds of all those infected with HIV live in Africa south of the Sahara. In this area during 2010, 1.9 million became infected and more than 1.2 million died of AIDS.
Rapid population growth has slowed economic growth throughout Africa.
In 2001, the African Union (AU) replaced the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The new organization has dealt with many of Africa's challenges and even promotes democracy.
Despite the end of the Korean War in 1953, North and South Korea continue to have political tension which threatens the peace between the two countries, mostly due to North Korea's nuclear weapons program.
As more Chinese learned about the West, and as the economy improved, students and other groups wanted better living conditions and more freedom. In 1989, a mass protest took place. This led to the Tiananmen Square Massacre in Beijing because Deng Xiaoping believed the protestors were calling for an end to Communist rule.
China adopted a new agricultural policy, and per capita income, including farm income, doubled in the 1980's. In addition, both agricultural and industrial output increased rapidly.