Contemporary Issues and Challenges
Everyday Action of Police
Discretion in Patrol Officers: they enforce many laws that deal with situations in which the particpants' conduct is in dispute
5 Factors: Seriousness/nature of crime, relationship between perp/victim, relationship between police and victim/perp, implicit bias (race, age, gender, class), and departmental policy
Failure in Past of Domestic Violence: seen as private matters and insensitiveness to vicitimization of women
Abuse of Power and Use of Force
Problems with Use of Force: overuse or discrimination
Grass v. Meat Eaters: G- accepts payoffs M- abuse their power for personal gain
4 Methods to Increase Civic Accountability: internal affairs units, civilian review boards, standards and accreditation, civil liability suits
Civilian Review Boards criticism by Police: don't understand law enforcement work and will make bad calls on police behavior
Internal Affairs Unit- unit within a police department designated to receive and investigate complaints alleging violation of rules and policies on the part of officers
Evidence-Based Policing- Police strategies and deployment of resources developed through examination of research on crime, social problems, and previously used strategies
Differential Response- Policy that gives priority to calls according to whether an immediate or delayed response is warranted.
Measures of Police Productivity: crime statistics, clearance rate, traffic citations
3 Parts: answering calls for assistance, maintaining a police presence, probing suspicious circumstances
Steps in the Apprehension Process: detection of crime, preliminary investigation, follow-up investigation, clearance and arrest
3 Kinds of Spec Ops Units in Police Departments: traffic, vice, narcotics
Agressive Patrol- proactive strategy designed to maximize the number of police interventions and observations in a community
Elements of Community Policing: order maintainence and service, involve members of the community in making their neighborhoods safe, foot patrol and decentralization of command are usually part of community-policing efforts
Police and Community
Factors that make policing in a multicultural society difficult: stereotyping, cultural differences, language differences
3 Models for Private Employment of Police Officers: department contract model, officer contract model, union brokerago model
Criminal Justice and the Rule of Law
Development of Police in the United States
Major Recommendations of the Progessiver Reformers: police should be removed from politics and well trained, laws should be enforced equally, technology should be used, merit should be the merit of personal procedures, and the crime-fighting role should be prominent
Historical Periods of American Policing: colonial era and early republic; political model era, community policing era
Three Main Things Developed from England: limited authority, local control, organizational fragmentation
Law Enforcement Agencies
FBI Priorities: 1. Protect the U.S. from terrorist attack.
Protect the U.S. against foreign intelligence operations and espionage.
Protect the U.S. against cyber-based attacks and high-tech crimes
Combat public corruption at all levels.
Protect civil rights.
Combat transnational and national criminal organizations and enterprises.
Combat major white-collar.
Combat significant violent crime.
Support federal, state, county, municipal, and international partners.
Upgrade technology to successfully perform the FBI's mission.
Agencies: state, county, Native American tribal police, municipal, and special jurisdiction
Jurisdiction of federal law enforcement agencies: Enforcing the laws of the federal government
Functions of most state police agencies: traffic law enforcement responsiblities, 2/3 of the states exercise general police powers, especially in rural areas
functions of sheriffs: operate jails, move prisoners, and provide court bailiffs
Who are the Police?
Main requirements to be a police officer: HS diploma, good physical condition, absence of a criminal record
Changes in the profile: Better educated, more female and minority officers
Where does the socialization happen? On the job.
2 Key Influences on the Police's working personality: Danger; Authority
4 types of stress felt by police: external, organized, personal, and operational
Organization of the Police
3 Characteristics of Bureaucracy: division of labor, chain and unity of command, rules and procedures
4 Operational Units of most police departments: patrol, investigation, traffic, vice
Characteristics of the watchman style of policing: Emphasis on order maintenence, extensive use of discretion, and risk of differential treatment of racial/ethnic groups
Police and Law
Exigent Circumstance- urgent situation in which evidence might be destroyed, a suspect might escape, or the publice would be endangered if police took the time to seek a warrant for a search and arrest
2 Elements Necessary for a valid consent to a warantless search: voluntary consent by a person with proper authority to consent
Justification for Automobiles Stop Without Reasonable Suspicion: international borders, sobriety checkpoints, traffic violation, other wrongdoing
"Public Safety" Exception: Questioning can take place before
if the public is in danger
Adaptations Made by Police Officers in Light of
: questioning before suspects are in custody, "befriending" suspect to get information, lying to subjects about evidence against them to get a confession
Miranda Rights- right to remain silent, the prosecution's authority to use any of the suspects statements, the right to an attorney during questioning and that one will be appointed if you can't afford one
Legal Limitations on Police Investigations
Search- government intrusion into an individual's reasonable expectation of privacy
Plain View Doctrine- permits officers to observe and seize illegal items that are visible to them when they are in a location in which they are legally permitted to be.
Arrest v. Stop: A- requires probable cause a takes someone into custody S- brief deprivation of freedom of movement based on reasonable suspicion
Why? to deter officers from violating human rights, part of 4th and 5th Amendments
Criticism: hampers police investigations and permits some guilty people to go free
Main Exceptions: evidence would be found eventually anyway, good faith that it was legal (Ex: faulty warrant)
5th Amendment- Right to grand jury, protects against self-incrimination, and requires due process of law
6th Amendment- right to an attorney, a fair trial, and to know what the charges are
4th Amendment- Search and Seizure
8th Amendment- protects from cruel and unusual punishment