Tang and Song China
Tang and Song China
Tang Dynasty Expands China
Wendi declared himself the first emperor of the Sui Dynasty
The dynasty lasted through only two emperors. (From 581 to 618)
The Sui emperor's greatest accomplishment was the completion of the Grand Canal
Connected the Huang and the Chang Jiang
Provided a vital route for trade between the northern cities and the southern rice-producing region of the Change delta
Why was it important to connect the Northern Cities and Southern Region to the Sui Dynasty?
It was important because it benefitted the culture and economy communications between the northern and southern part. Resulting in the national strength enhancing and the strengthening on government rule over the whole country
About a million peasant men and women worked for five years to dig the canal that was more than 1,000 miles long.
As many as half the workers had died while doing this
Thousands more has worked to rebuild the Great Wall and had died doing that
The labor on these state projects had cause the people to turn against the Sui Dynasty
Eventually they had enough of it and revolted
In 618, a member of the imperial court had assassinated the second Sui emperor
Tang Rulers Create a Powerful Empire
The Sui Dynasty had built a strong foundation for the next dynasty, the Tang
The Tang Dynasty ruled for about 300 years (from 618 to 907)
The emperor of the Tang Dynasty was Tang Taizong. His reign lasted from 626 to 649
The empire had expanded under the Tang rulers
Taizong's armies had reconquered the northern and western lands that had been lost by China due to the decline of the Han Dynasty
By 668, China was able to extend its influence over Korea also
The ruler of Korea at the time was the empress Wu Zhao, who held held the real power from 660 on, while the weak emperors sat on the throne
In 690, Empress Wu claimed the title of emperor for herself. She was the only woman to ever do so in China
Tang rulers had strengthened the central government of China by expanding the network of roads and canals that had been begun by the Sui
They had also made improvements in agriculture and promoted foreign trade
Why might Tang Rulers have fought to expand China's borders?
By fighting for to expand China's borders, it would have strengthened the central government of China and it also would have expanded the network or roads and canals. Overall helping to pull the empire together
Tang rulers needed to restore China's vast bureaucracy to manage their large empire
To do so, they revived and expanded the civil service examination system that had been begun by the Han Dynasty
The exams that were needed to be taken were open to all men (even commoners)
Only wealthy men could afford the years of education needed
Why do you think they made it so that only wealthy men could have the ability to get the education needed and take the exam?
Men with political connections were able to obtain high positions without needing to take the exam
Do you think that making it was fair the men with political connections had advantages over men who didn't?
Despite the unfair flaws, this system created a very intelligent and capable government class in China
Before Tang Dynasty, very few noble families dominated the country
As the examination system grew larger in importance, talent, and education had become more important than noble birth in winning power
The result from that, many families that weren't too wealthy had a chance to be a part in China's government
Do you think that it was a good thing that education had become more important in government than money or family name?
More Scholar-Official Info
The Tang Lose Power
Tang rulers imposed crushing taxes in the mid-700s to meet the rising costs of government
This resulted in failing to cover the costs of military expansion and new building programs
The Tang struggled to control the empire that they had built
In 751, Muslim armies defeated the Chinese at the Battle of Talas
As a result of the defeat, Central Asia passed out of Chinese control and into foreign hands
Battle of Talas
War / Conflict
In 907, Chinese rebels sacked and burned the Tang capital at Ch'ang-an and murdered the last Tang emperor, a child.
Do you think it was right of the Chinese rebels to murder the last Tang emperor, considering it was a child?
Fall of Tang/Rise of Song
In 960, a general, Taizu, reunited China and proclaimed himself the first "Song" emperor
Song Dynasty stumbles
The Tang dynasty lost Northern and Western Lands during their decline and never gained them back. An attempt was made to bribe the nomadic tribesmen for peace in the north. This idea ultimately failed.
What concerns might Song Emperors of had when buying peace from their Northern Enemies?
The Emperors could've believed that bribing the Nomadic Tribesmen was no use. They could pay all the gold in the world but their Northern enemies wouldn't leave them alone.
In early 1100's Manchurian people called The Jurchen conquered Northern China and forced the Song to retreat across Huang He. From 1127-1279, the Song only ruled southern China.
Why might the Huang He have become a Stable border for the southern Song?
The Huang He is a large river that would create seperation between The Song and their foe. It would act as a barrier.
Song Dynasty recovers
Despite the Song's military struggle, the Southern Song saw rapid economic growth and had become the heartland of China.
Many Merchants beca,e rich through trade with Northern China, Central Asia, and people of Western Asia and Europe.
Economy and Trade
The Song established a New capital in Hangzhou
The Song dynasty, like the Tang dynasty, lasted over three centuries. (600-1279
How did he unite China?
After fall of Tang dynasty rival warlords divided China into separate kingdoms.
Changes in Chinese Society
Levels of Society
Upperclass made up with Scholars and families
Attained through education and civil service positions
Are these the only two things that make you part of the gentry?
Urban middle class
Merchants, shopkeepers, skilled artisans. Minor officials
Urban society lower class
Laborers soldiers and servants
toiled for landowners
lived in the countryside
Why was this the largest class?
The Status of Women
Women’s work was deemed less important to the family’s prosperity and status
Upperclass girls Binding their feet
Bound there feet tightly with cloth until arch was broke and curled everything but the big toe under “Lily-foot”
Women reflected the wealth and prestige of her husband
Women worked in the fields helping with food and income
Where these women respected more than the upperclass women because they worked more?
Change in woman status
An era of prosperity and innovation
At 100 million, the Tang and Song dynasties doubled in size, making China the most populated country in the world with almost 1 million people each city.
They made many technology advancements such as the movable type and gunpowder.
Gunpowder was used for weapons, this includes bombs, grenades, cannons and small rockets.
With movable type, a printer could arrange blocks with different characteristics to make a frame for paintings.
1000 to 1200 was an important time for the Chinese and mathematics. They had many ideas, like using the negative numbers
What caused the rapid growth in size?
Due to the fast birth rate in China, they had to make advancements in farming. They improved in the cultivation of rice
China got their hands on a new, fast-ripening rice from Vietnam. Now instead of only harvesting one rice crop, they could harvest two crops.
To ensure that everyone knew about this new advancement, officials distributed seeds all throughout China. These improvements lead to the production of more food. This was needed for the growing population
They also used the silk road for a lot of trade
Supply and Demand
Why were the birth rates so fast?
Supply and Demand