An Introduction to RhetoricUsing the "Available Means"…
An Introduction to RhetoricUsing the "Available Means"
- The facility of observing in any given case as the available means of persuasion
- Rhetorical techniques used to persuade an audience by emphasizing what they find most important or compelling. Three major appeals are
- Speakers appeal to logos, or reason, by offering clear, rational ideas and using specific details, examples, facts, statistics, or expert testimony to back them up.
- Used to demonstrate that the speakers are credible and trustworthy on a given topic. Ethos is established by who you are and what you say.
-Speakers appeal to pathos to emotionally motivate the audience. More specific appeals to pathos might play on the audience's values, desires, and hopes as well as their fears or prejudices.
- A diagram that illustrates the interrelationship among the speaker, audience, and subject in determining a text.
-The face or character that a speaker shows to his or her audience. Greek for Mask.
- The topic of a text
- The listener, viewer, or reader of a text.
- The time and place the text was written or spoken.
The goal the speaker wants to achieve.
- The person or group who creates a text.
The spread of ideas and information to further a cause. In it's a negative sense, propaganda is the use of rumors, lies, disinformation, and scare tactics in order to damage or promote a cause.
-A denial of the validity of an opposing argument. In order to sound reasonable, refutations often follow a concession that acknowledges that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable.
An acknowledgment that an opposing argument may be true or reasonable. In a strong argument, a concession is usually accompanied by a challenge to the validity of an opposing argument.
An opposing argument to the one a writer is putting forward. Rather than ignoring a counterargument, a strong writer will usually address it through the process of concession and refutation.
- An aggressive argument that tries to establish the superiority of one opinion over all others. Polemics generally do not concede that opposing opinions have any validity at all.
-Any cultural product that can be read.
The circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, ad events surrounding the text.
- Meanings or Association set the readers have with a word beyond its dictionary definition or denotation. Connotation sorry usually positive or negative, and they can greatly affect the author's tone.
Used to demonstrate that the speakers are credible and trustworthy on a given topic.
Ways to appeal to/establish Ethos
Explaining background to their readers, emphasizing shared values
The Myth of the Latin Woman: / Just Met a Girl Named Maria
Judith Ortiz Cofer
- A speaker's title, reputation or status can create automatic ethos.
The King's Speech
King George VI
He also establishes that he's like a common man and helps unite the nation.
Sharing a concern (ex. Concerned adult about children's well being.)
Establishing a persona (ex Lou Gehrig appearing as an average joe in his speech.)
Speaking on a subject that interests the audience.
Speakers appeal to logos, or reason, by offering information to back them up.
Ways to appeal to/establish Logos
Conceding and Refuting
- helps strengthen your argument by showing you know another viewpoint than yours and you still stick by your stance.
Slow Food Nation
Counter arguments are usually addressed through the process of concession and refutation.
The use of clear, rational ideas and using specific details, research, examples, quantitive data, facts, statistics, or expert testimonies.
Speakers appeal to pathos to emotionally motivate the audience.
Ways to appeal to/establish Pathos
Anecdotes, figurative language, humor and sometimes images in order to appeal to community values.
The Checkers Speech
Play on the audience's values, desires, fears, prejudices, and hopes.
Using Words with positive and strong connotations.
Combining Ethos, Logos, & Pathos
Combining Logos, Ethos, and Pathos to create a sturdy argument.
Laying out argument logically build ethos and is possible to build ethos from pathos.
Visual text are also agruements as well as they suport their stance with reason, emotion, and authority.
Rhetorical arguments can be ineffective if SOAPS isn't used properly.