Exam 1: Chapter 2
Exam 1: Chapter 2
4. Integral protein functions (4-9)
Located on the cell surface, it binds to a specific substrate and catalyzes some reaction. An example would be small intestinal enzymes. (Break down and absorb food)
Recognize a specific ligand, bind to it, and in binding change the cell's function. Examples would be hormones and neurotransmitters.
Binds with microfilaments and microtubules inside the cell membrane, giving structural stability and shape to the cell. Example: cholesterol helps provide structure to the cell.
carries compounds across the membrane; requires ATP. Example would be the Sodium-Potassium pump.
Cell Identify Marker
Major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins: distinguish cells as "self" from "nonself", allowing the immune system to recognize foreign elements. Immune cells will either attack or pass cells based on this.
10. Cell membrane functions
Communication - cells
Electrochemical gradient - Neurons & muscles rely on this heavily.
Selective permeability (semi-permeable) which is determined by...
size of particle
charge on particle
presence of specific channels
15. Filtration and dacilitated diffusion
concentration gradient (same as diffusion)
number of available transporters (saturation issues)
combination rate between transporter and solute.
11. Membrane transport
Passive Processes - will not use energy
might be best just to look at the slides carefully.
Active Processes - will use energy via: ATP & Gradient
Primary active transport
famous example, sodium-potassium pump
secondary active transport
Pinocytosis - "cell drinking"
phagocytosis - "cell eating"
2. General Cell Structure
Expected to know the organelles of the cell. Thier purpose, and where they are located. These are multi-choice questions.
3. Plasma (cell) membrane
"Fluid mosaic model" is the name of the cell membrane.
(proteins that go all the way through the membrane and transport molecules/compounds)
(proteins that touch the aqueous environment and lay on the surface of the cell membrane.)
12. Simple diffusion
will try to move, without ATP, to equalize the concentration of ions freely.
is the ability of a solution to affect the volume and pressure of a cell.
16. Active processes
look at 11. Membrane transport