Hong Kong's Sustainability
Hong Kong's Sustainability
There has been a rapid expansion in terms of the services economy.
In 2015, this sector
generated 92.7 per cent of Hong Kong’s GDP
Because of technological change and increased competition due to globalization, Hong Kong's economy shifts towards higher added-value services
Service Orientation- Among the most developed in East Asia
Over the past 10 years, value-added of the services sector rose by an average annual rate of 5.8% to US$ 263.4 billion.
Hong Kong’s exports of services comprise mainly
merchanting and other trade-related services, travel
services, and transportation services, which accounted for
27.2 per cent, 26.4 per cent and 21.9 per cent
of the total value in 2015
A net exporter of services with an
overall surplus of US$73.2 billion in services trade in 2015
This suggests that Hong Kong does have a strong edge as
a services exporter in the region
Consequences- There is a limited amount of high-paid jobs in the sector
Most service jobs are low skilled or unpaid positions, and workers receive low pay
They have little chance to move upwards, which results in a widening income gap
HK is the second largest per capita consumer of seafood in Asia
DEPLETION OF RESOURCES
The supply of water from Dongjiang at Guangdong, is now the major single source of raw water supply for Hong Kong. The annual Dongjiang water supply has been now almost 70 - 80 per cent of Hong Kong's total demand starting since the late nineties.
Commercial and industrial sectors (that is, restaurants and food processing factories) are responsible for a third of HK's food waste
Hong kong has huge wealth gap .
16% of HK's 2008 footprint was for investment in lasting assets. Lasting assets are things like buildings, roads, factories ETC.
HK is getting richer, so its population is better off. From 1980 to 2008, HK's per capita income relative to world income increased by 14%
Hong Kong’s merchandise exports increased by 8.5% year-on-year in January-July 2017, after a marginal decrease of 0.5% in 2016. Hong Kong’s merchandise exports are projected to grow by 5% as a whole in 2017.
SUSTAINABLE CITY MANAGEMENT
to reduce emissions from factories or releasing waste in water bodies.
Economic inequality reduced
through providing more job opportunities and ensure minimum wages.
Housing + Built Environment
2015: 40% of Hong Kong's land is green space according to the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department
March 2017: projected 96,000 housing units in the next 3-4 years
Special Stamp Duty passed in 2011 places financial penalty on homeowners who sell property after purchasing in a short amount of time to combat inflation in the housing market:
2017: 0.7% of monthly transactions involved resale less than 24 months after a purchase
2010: 20% of the above cases
200,000 people out of 7.3 million live in “subdivided units” which does not include rooftop shacks, metal cages, or coffin homes
Rent prices have risen by 50% in the past 5 years
Some places, 1 meter by 2 meter costs $317 per month
Costs about $5 for one square foot of space, but these people are living on low wages
Social + Cultural
Between 1980 and 2008, HK's Human Development Index value increased from 0.71 ('high') to 0.91 ('very high')
Hong Kong has relatively low crime rates, 0.4% homicide rate in 2016; however petty theft and vehicle theft is much more common with 27,512 reports in 2015
There is also organized crime in Hong Kong and one of the world's biggest Triads, Sun Yee On, was founded there in 1919 and now has over 55,000 members worldwide
Usage of ketamine and cannabis have risen in the 21st century with the popularization of nightclubs and raves
Sustainable- About 16% of Hong Kong's footprint in 2008 was invested towards lasting assets. These include roads, buildings, factories, public transportation, etc. It can be said that Hong Kong is currently providing for the future, as they can help reduce the footprint in the future.
Unsustainable- Approximately 30% of Hong Kong's food footprint comes from seafood, which contributes to environmental unsustainability
Humanity will require 2.6 Earths to sustain the resources utilized if everyone in the world were to live like a Hong Kong resident
Young Hongkongers- According to a research centre conducted by Oxford and Chinese University, Hongkongers aged 15 to 24 are least likely to act in an environmentally friendly manner, whereas older people are the complete opposite
Recycling facilities were less sophisticated in public housing estates in comparison to private buildings or subsidised housing, thus residents had less incentive to acquire the habit.
transport and connectivity
Improving transport infrastructure
In September 2014, the Government announced
the Railway Development Strategy 2014 to implement seven more railway project extending the railway network to over 300 km by 2031.
Improve pedestrian facilities
Government has put increasing
emphasis on expanding and improving pedestrian facilities such as the provision of hillside escalator links and elevator systems to promote walking as a transport
mode for short distance trips. To enhance vertical connectivity, two hillside escalator projects are under progress.
easy access to public transport
INCREASED AMOUNT OF CARS
this causes more emissions and congestion
people losing time and money as loss of man hours wasted by traffic
caused by congestion, as the emissions causes problems such as breathing and lung problems.
SUSTAINABLE CITY MANAGEMENT
to encourage use of public transport that are environmentally friendly.
ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY TRANSPORTATION
Buses powered by a parallel hybrid engine comprising an internal combustion CNG engine and an electric motor using regenerative energy storage system.
There is too much foreign intervention and influence on democratic elections held in Hong Kong. Election committees are pro-Beijing and is causing political unrest among the citizens of Hong Kong.
Only 0.03% of Hong Kong's population can vote. The voting power is with the executive voting committee consisting of Hong Kong elites
“Lam’s victory despite her lack of representation and popular support reflects the Chinese Communist party’s complete control over Hong Kong’s electoral process and its serious intrusion of Hong Kong’s autonomy.”
There are more people on the voting committee, with it's number increasing every election term (5 years)
The government of Hong Kong is dubbed a special administrative region operating under the purview of a central government
In comparison to most countries in the Asia, Hong Kong is seen to have "a highly liberal political and cultural environment" and is seen to have a high amount of political freedom e.g Umbrella Protest
Unaffordable Government Housing
45% of Hong Kong's population are on the waiting list for Hong Kong's affordable housing properties, but the average waiting time is 2 years, causing many of these people to turn to urban slums and rooftop slums
a high correlation shows that family background is important and social mobility is limited
Hong Kong, at 0.535, is the most unequal city in the developed world. In Hong Kong, we not only see the gini coefficient is high but the actual level of income is low as well
HK is getting richer, so it's population is better off. From 1980 to 2008, HK's per capita income relative to world income increased by 14%