Chap 6 : 5 types of Message Structure: (5) Verbal vs Visual Message…
Chap 6 : 5 types of Message Structure:
Items presented first and last are remembered better than those in the middle.
Placements of Important message(Persuasive message) is key.
2) Conclusion Drawing
Messages with Explicit conclusions are easier to understand.
Marketing communicators must decide whether
their messages should explicitly（明示/正确） draw a firm conclusion
or allow receivers to draw their own conclusions.
3) Message Sidedness = 3 types
1)One-sided message = Mentions only positive attributes/ benefits by using the product/ services.
Most effective when the target audience already holds a favorable opinion about the topic.
Also work better with less educated audience.
2)Two-sided messages = Present both good and bad points.
Are more effective when the target audience holds an opposing opinion or is highly educated.
May also enhance the credibility of the source.
3)Two-sided message with Refutational appeals
Most advertisers used one-sided messages.
They concerned about the
negative effects of acknowledging（承认） a weakness in their brand or don't want to say anything positive about their competitors.
*A better-educated audience usually knows there are arguments, so a communicator who presents both sides of an issue is likely to be seen as less biased and more objective.
More effective than one-sided messages in making consumers resistant（反抗） to an opposing message.
May be useful when marketers wish to build attitudes that resist change and must defend against attacks or criticism of their products or the company.
Tend to "inoculate（灌输）" the target audience against a competitor's counterclaims（反对要求）.
Use an impact-full picture, so that people can remember about what they saw even the forget the meaning, also to get attention from others.
A special type of two-sided message, the communicator presents both sides of an issue then refutes the opposing.
5) Verbal vs Visual Message Characteristics(4 types of appeals)
1) Rational Appeals（合理的）
Awareness（意识/察觉）, knowledge, liking, preference（偏向）, conviction（信服）, purchase.
2) Fear Appeals
Audience's sense of fear.
Common in daily usage household brands. Life insurance, shampoo
Effective advertising = Combines practical reasons for purchasing a product with emotional values.
3) Emotional Appeals
An attempt to stir up positive/ negative emotions to motivate a purchase.
Influences customers to buy the brand emotionally.
Encourage individuals to buy products for the "disgust（反感）, comfort（舒适）, safety, stimulation（刺激）, guilty（心虚）, pleasure（满足/高兴）, joy, happiness.
Encourages people to contribute for recognition, affiliation, acceptance, status.
Visual elements are very important in an advertisements.
Convey / reinforce copy or message claims.
Ads used visual elements to communicate.
4) Humor Appeals(Read yourself)