Internal Conflict Creates A Crisis
Muslim community having trouble keeping unified rule. In 656 Uthman was killed and many groups fought for power.
Ali was Muhammad's cousin and son in law was the natural successor to Uthman. His rule was challenged by Syrian governor Muawiya. In 661 Ali was killed and the right to choose a leader died with him.
The Umayyad family then rose to power. They moved the muslim capitol from Mecca to Damascus to make conquering territories easier.
The Arab muslims felt this capitol was too far away from their homeland. They saw a change in the way the Umayyads were ruling. They saw them surround themselves with wealth similar to non-muslim rulers. This created division in the muslims.
Some muslims stayed loyal to the caliph for peace's sake, but a small group called the Shi'a, or party of Ali, continued to resist.
Those who stayed loyal to the caliph were later classified as Sunni, or followers of Muhammad's example.
Another group called the Sufi decided to live in poverty to have a more spiritual life, rejecting the Umayyads.
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The difference between Sunni and Shiite Muslims
The concept of change applies to the separation of Islam.
How did Umayyad followers feel about the wealth they were acquiring?
Where is Damascus and is it still around today?
The concept of conflict applies to the problems happening in the muslim community.
Control Extends Over Three Continents
During the ruthless murder spree in 750, a prince named Abd al-Rahman escaped and ran to Spain and created the Umayyad caliphate
Spain had already been conquered by Muslims from North Africa called Berbers
The Berber armies marched North 200 miles from Paris before being stopped at the Battle of Tours in 732
To show off their power, the Abbasids relocated their capital of their empire in 762, to Baghdad in central Iraq
The location gave them a better place to trade goods, gold, and information about the far-flung empire
The Abbasids started a bureaucracy to conduct the empires affairs
The Abbasids only lasted from 750 to 1258
Their power had grown tremendously, but their political power was very low and that's what caused the group to fall apart
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Muhammad's Successors Spread Islam
Abu-Bakr, and close friend of Muhammad, was named Caliph, Islamic word meaning successor or deputy in 632.
Next three Caliphs, Umar, Uthman, and Ali, were all acquaintances of Muhammad
After the death of Muhammad, some tribes on the Arabian Peninsula abandoned Islam, and others refused to pay taxes, and even some individuals declared themselves prophets.
For the sake of Islam, Abu-Bakr invoked
, an islamic word meaning "striving". The Qur"an also uses this word to mean "an armed struggle against unbelievers".
After Abu-Bakr's death in 634, Umar took over as the second Caliph. His Muslim armies conquered some parts of the Byzantine Empire, example: Syria, and Lower Egypt. and also took parts of the Sassanid Empire.
The next two Caliphs, Uthman and Ali, also took part in the huge expansion of Islam. By around 750, the Muslim Empire stretched 6,000 miles from the Atlantic to the Indus River.
Reasons for Success
The four caliphs made unbelievable progress in their Muslim expansion attempts.
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Picture of the Muslim Empire
Why would some people say that they're prophets
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