The Great Leap Forward (1958-1962) (Causes (The first five-year plan was…
The Great Leap Forward (1958-1962)
The first five-year plan was too reliant on USSR: Mao wanted to show independence
By 1958, Mao had been in power for over 10 years, meaning that he had secured power and trust over the people
Mao believed that human willpower was the key factor for change
Mao's visit to Moscow inspired Mao to believe that Communism was better than Capitalism (Sputnik- the first spaceship into space, and winning the space race, proved to Mao that communism was better)
Sino-Soviet relations in 1958 was terrible, and Mao wanted China to be not only economically independent from the USSR, but also becoming a world leader in communism.
The development of an industrial proletariat was an vital part of Marxist ideology.
Mass mobilization of Chinese population
Overtake the West (e.g. UK in steel output in 15 years)
To modernize and industralise China
Increase agriculture output to increase the food supply to cities and export more to buy machinery
To be carried out by the CCP leaders including Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping
As early as 1958, there were signs of food shortages
Decline in peasant enthusiasm in the GLP
The Great Leap Forward emphasised militarization and discipline of labour, as well as communal living, which was a struggle for some peasants, in particular, the wealthier ones.
Peasants from richer collectives were also unhappy and resented sharing their wealth and animals with poorer peasants.
Thus, many would slaughter and consume their own animals, instead of handing them over to the commune.
Increased in production
Backyard Steel Campaign
Took away too many peasants from agricultural production, thus, reducing amount of food grown.
The heavy use of coal in industry, meant that trains did not have enough coal to run, thus, meaning that they could often not transport the steel produced to the factories that needed it.
Industrial chaos in factories
Machines often broke down due to overuse and inadequate maintenance.
Work produced was often substandard due to long hours worked by workers.
Workers were tired and thus, led to more industrial accidents.
Withdrawal of USSR support
In July 1960, there was an abrupt ending of Soviet aid and provision of spare parts.
Withdrawn 1400 Soviet technicians.
There was the establishment of successful smaller industrial enterprises, that formed the basis of the "Township and Village Enterprises" in 1976.
The Lusan Conference
Key Words and Definitions
Working-class people regarded collectively.
The middle class, with its materialistic values and conventional attitudes.
Simultaneous development of agriculture and industry at the same time.
Walking on 2 legs
Centre-rightists vs leftists