Piaget: Cognitive development
1) Sensori-motor stage
2) Pre-operational stage
3) Concrete operational stage
4) Formal operational stage
Things noted about traditional teaching (Ausubel)
When students are given all of the information that is necessary on a topic in its final form; students do none of the initial work.
When students have to learn the expository teaching materials.
When students are made to relate any new information to previously learned material
When students have to change what they already know to allow the new information to relate to what they know.
Ideas/concepts given to students before any new material is learned. Eg. Lesson objectives using key terms.
Use of correlative subsumption more as they require more cognitive effort & students are more likely to retain info.
Making it meaningful
Sufficient background material presented & stored so students are prepared to learn new ideas.
Discovery learning (Bruner)
Students are to organize materials themselves with cognitive effort.
Students have to be ready to learn & discover new things by looking for relationships between different bits of information.
Students need to be in a motivational state that is optimum.
Zone of proximal development (Vygotsky)
The difference between what learners can achieve by themselves & what they can achieve with the help of someone with more experience.
Process whereby someone with knowledge attempts to pass on knowledge to someone with less knowledge.
By creating structured materials that allow students to gain confidence with a particular topic with the relevant help.
"Packets of information"
Developed over time & changes depending on experiences.