PRINT CULTURE IN EUROPE (12 CENTURY PRINT CULTURE IN EUROPE (As demand of…
PRINT CULTURE IN EUROPE
11 CENTURY PRINTING CULTURE IN EUROPE
In the 11 century Chinese paper reached Europe through silk route.
Paper made possible the production of manuscripts , carefully written by scribes.
12 CENTURY PRINT CULTURE IN EUROPE
Marco Polo was a great explorer, returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China.
He had brought the knowledge of wood block printing to Italy, Europe.
Due to which Italians started printing through this technology which soon enough spread throughout Europe.
Merchants and students in the university still bought cheaper printed books.
Even after introduction of modern technology in Europe in printing; Luxury edition were still handwritten on very expensive vellum; meant for aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries which made fun of cheap printed books.
As demand of books increased booksellers all over Europe began exploiting books to many different countries. Book fairs were held at different countries.
Production of handwritten manuscripts were also organised in new ways to meet expanded demands.
Scribes were no longer solely employed by wealthy or influential people but were also increasingly by booksellers as well.
More than 50 scribes often worked under one bookseller.
15 CENTURY PRINTING CULTURE IN EUROPE
With the growing demand of books wood block printing gradually became more and more popular.
Wood block printing being widely used in Europe for many ways like:
As the production increased manuscripts were not able to meet the increasing demands for books
Copying was laborious and tedious
Manuscripts were fragile , awkward to handle and could not be carried easily.
INNOVATION : BREAKTHRUGH TO THE PROBLEM
The breakthrough of creation of new print technology occurred at Strasbourg Germany where Johann Gutenberg developed the first known printing press in 1430s.