Instructional Theories Concept List (Gagne's 9 Events of Instruction (…
Instructional Theories Concept List
Gagne's 9 Events of Instruction
Involves focusing the learner's attention on the learning task
Informing the learner of the objective
Requires the instructional system to convey to the learner the expected outcome of the instruction.
Stimulating recall of prerequisite learnings
Requires the instructional system to make knowledges and skills learned previously highly accessible to learners.
Presenting stimulus material
Involves the actual presentation of new material to the learner.
Providing learner guidance
Requires the instructional system to provide learners with cues and hints that can be used by learners.
Eliciting the performance
Calls upon the instructional system to demand a demonstration by learners of the new information they have acquired.
Helps to guide learners toward mastery of the new material.
Assessing the performance
The instructional event of assessing the performance should not be confused with grading. Rather, it is the element within the instructional system that involves the determination of how many and what kinds of learner performances will provide satisfactory evidence that learning has occurred.
Enhancing retention and transfer
Requires the instructional system to engage in repeated performances of the new learning with an ultimate view of transferring this acquired behavior to new and different settings.
Domains of Learning
ABCDs of objectives
Audience (e.g., students)
Behavior (e.g., identify different types of learning outcomes)
Condition (e.g., from given examples)
Degree (e.g., 90% of accuracy)
A skill is identified as motor skill when gradual movements in the quality of its movement (smoothness, timing) can be attained only by repetition of that movement.
Attitudes are inferred internal states. An attitude is an internal state that influences the choice of personal action. As an example, a positive attitude toward listening to classical music influences the behavior of an individual to choose such listening when a choice is provided. An attitude of rejection toward using harmful drugs influences the behavior of rejection when the individual is confronted with choices of this nature. We cannot observe them directly, but must make inferences from one or another kind of observable behavior. All we are able to say is that attitudes influence behavior.
I am impressed with the evidence found by Bandura (1969) and his associates, which assigns a critical function to the human model. It seems to me that at least one highly common way in which attitudes are acquired or changed is through the mediation of human model.
Cognitive strategies (Executive control processes or strategic knwoledge)
A cognitive strategy enables a learner to exercise some degree of control over the processes involved in attending, perceiving, encoding, remembering and thinking.
Verbal information (Declarative knowledge)
The form of verbal statements. Declarative knowledge is probably a better name, implying that its presence is shown by the ability of a person to 'declare' or 'state' something.
Intellectual skills (Procedural knowledge)
Concepts, rules, procedures
Matching events of instruction with objectives (interesting)