EACS 110 Foundations for Practice (Module 4 cont.:Quality of Life…
EACS 110 Foundations for Practice
Part 1: Exploring your own perceptions of Disability
Beliefs:What you think is true
Values:What you think is important
Can be formed by culture and heritage
language, perceptions, understandings and beliefs about disability have been influenced by
Understanding ourselves: Brill and Levine
Basic human needs
Development of the individual rests upon fulfillment of the basic human needs
- feeling and affective area
- material structure of the body
- capacity for rational/intelligent thought, power of knowing
- vital principle that gives life meaning
- relationships with others
Western Society has dominant philosophical values traced to 4 main sources:
,with its concept of the integral worth of the individual andone’s responsibility for one’s neighbor.
,which emphasize the equality of all and the right to “life, liberty,and the pursuit of happiness.” (Bill, N.I. & Levine, J., 2005)
The Puritan ethic
,which says that character is all, circumstance nothing, that the moral person is the one who works and is independent, and that pleasure is sinful.
The tenets of social Darwinism
,which emphasizes that the fittest survive and the weakperish in a natural evolutionary process that produces the strong individual and societ
Attitudes:The way you express yourself through words and actions
Part 1: Kathy Snow : People first language (Snow, K. (2009).
Put the person before the diagnosis! IE, has Autism, not is Autistic
Societies attitudes are strongly influenced by how the media portrays individuals with disabilities.
Rioux: Chapter 2 - Perspectives on Disability
Four general perspectives have shaped professional and popular culture
Two of these approaches formulate disability as an individual pathology, focusing on disability as a condition residing in the individual
PREVENTION through early diagnosis / treatment
TREATMENT through rehab services
PREVENTION through biological intervention or screening
TREATMENT or cure by medical means
Two approaches formulate disability as a social pathology and place emphasis on the socio-economic conditions that contribute to a disabling environment
Consequence of service arrangements and environmental factors
TREATMENT through increased individual control of services and supports
PREVENTION through elimination of social, economic and physical barriers
Consequence of social organization and relationships of individual to society
(human rights approach)
TREATMENT through reformulation of social and political policy
PREVENTION through recognition of condition of disability as inherent to society
Impairment (She's Short)
- Any loss or abnormality of a psychological or anatomical structure or function
Disability (She can't reach the top shelf)
- Any restriction of inability to perform an activity in the manner or range within range considered normal for a human being
Handicap (Why is there a shelf that high?)
- Any disadvantage for a given individual resulting from an impairment or disability that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal for THAT person
Module 2 : Lessons from History
- Science begins to replace religion as the main authority guiding leaders in the West. Instead of being seen as having a spiritual deficit, people with disabilities are seen as having a genetic deficit.
- First school for the deaf in the U.S.: American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, Hartford, CT.
- Academy for the Deaf and Dumb established in Scotland.
State mental hospitals were the first formal systems of public care for the mentally ill in the United States.
- Beginning of special schools for treatment of children with disabilities. First attempts to educate deaf children.
- Massachusetts Legislature appropriated funds to create the Massachusetts School for Idiotic Children and Youth in Boston
1598 - 1601
English Elizabethan Poor Laws People with disabilities ejected from hospitals and monastery shelters for the poor. People with disabilities were forced to beg and were given a cap in which to collect alms.
1850 - 1920's
Beginning of the Eugenics Movement. Goal to improve the quality of human gene pool.
1200 - 1700
The accepted belief was that mentally ill people were possessed by the devil or evil spirit. As a result they were tortured and burned at the stake
Origin of the Species
published. The principle of natural selection applied to humans and society by scientists and politicians in the U.S. and Europe (Social Darwinism).
- Racial Hygiene Movement favored government controlled policies to control reproduction so that only desirable genes get passed on. Believed that action should be taken to eradicate diseases and characteristics that "weakend the huan race"
- Indiana became the first of 29 states to pass compulsory sterilization laws directed at people with genetic illnesses or conditions
- Soldier Rehabilitation (Smith-Sears) Act of 1918 - vocational rehabilitation for disabled veterans, only for people with physical disabilities..
- Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1920 - similar to above, but for civilians: only for people with physical disabilities.
1920 - 1938
- States established workers' compensation programs.
- Harry Laughlin who was part of the Eugenics movement drew up a model sterilization law, which served as an example for numerous state legislatures.
Buck v. Bell
, 274 US 200 (1927), Supreme Court decision that upheld a Virginia statute that forbade "feebleminded" people from marrying or becoming parents .
- Institutionalization of people with disabilities is seen as best for them and for society. People with disabilities seen as a "drag on civilization"
- German Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring passed.
- Nazi Sterilization Program begins, Doctors required to register anyone known to have any "genetic illness" such as "feeblemindedness".
- End of Nazi sterilization program. Beginning of Euthanasia Program. 70,000 adults and 5,000 children put to death during the official phase and over 200,000 killed in total.
- Nazi Euthanasia Program expanded to include children of "unwanted" races (non-disabled and disabled)
- Congress passed the Borden-LaFollette Act, which expanded vocational rehabilitation programs to include mentally ill and mentally retarded people in vocational rehabilitation programs.
- there has been a major reform in public mental health services - a movement towards "community mental health"
Substandard conditions at institutions for the mentally retarded exposed in the media.
- Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Centres Construction Act of 1963 passed.
- Independent Living movement begins grass roots effort by disabled people to acquire new rights and entitlements, control over their lives.
- First Center for Independent Living, Berkeley, CA. Service agency run by and for people with disabilities.
- Rehabilitation Act (Section 504) prohibited discrimination against "otherwise qualified handicapped" individuals in any program or activity receiving federal assistance.
- Education for All Handicapped Children Act passes.
- Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 1975 created state developmental disabilities councils for planning and advocacy.
- Fair Housing Amendments of 1988 brought protection to disabled people in housing
1980 - 1990s
- Genetic screening and testing to prevent the birth of "genetically defective" children become increasingly possible due to technological advances.
- American with Disabilities Act becomes federal law. Extends protection of 1973 Rehabilitation Act to private sector.
Canadian Charter Of rights and Freedoms:1985
first to close large institutions
First wave of disability movement:
Spans from Late 19th and first half of the 20th century. This was the era that the professionals only consulted with one another and were wholly responsible for patient care. Focus was on diagnosis and viewed those with disability as menace to society.
Professional era lead to involuntary sterilization of 'feeble minded' US supreme Court in 1927. 50000 by the 1970's
Canada's first institution was in Orillia in 1859
The Parent Era
During the middle of the 20th century. Greater life expectancy due to medicine and science. Shift from hiding those with disabilities to training and rehabilitating.
Created the perception of perpetual children / victims needing to be cared for
Self Advocacy Era
aka Self determination movement. 1970-1980's. No longer the professionals only answering to each other. Changed to parents taking leads and then to the realization that those with disabilities also had a voice and could speak for themselves.
Independent Living and Disability rights movement
, 1960's. Society started to see the struggle of those with disabilities and likened it to the struggle of those with visible minorities
Self advocacy or people first movement.
1970 as a service delivery. Bengt Nirje
Module 4 cont.:Quality of Life
Health and Wellness
Positive Support Workers
Connecting with friends and family
Belonging and Contributing in Community
Supportive Home Environment
Support for Goals
Safety and Comfort
Personal Future Planning
Clarify your vision
Creating a home
Making sound decisions
Achieving financial security
Securing your plan
"Community is where 'we' become 'us'."
Tim Brodhead, (Safe and Secure 2009)
Module 4: Person Centered Planning
Promotes Quality of life
PATH elements in order:
The Now ... Where Am I? /Are We?
Describe where you are are currently relative to the goal you wish to reach
The Goal ... Focus for the Next Year
Identify specific goals that you wish to attain
Recognizing Ways to Get Stronger
What supports or help to you need to meet your goal
The North Star ... The Dream
Where do you want of be in the one year in relation to each of the 6 domains
What is your dream - big picture
Committing to the Next Steps
What needs to be committed to in the next week to begin the process
Create an action plan
Planning the Next Month's Work
What are the immediate steps that need to occur in the next month
Create an action plan
Charting Actions for the Next Three Months
What are the practical steps that need to occur in the next three months to move you to towards your goals
Create an action plan
Identifying People to Enroll on the Journey
Who is currently in your life that can help you attain your goal?
Who else do you need?
What will you ask them to do?
Planning Domains focus on six areas of an individuals life
pecific: What do you want to accomplish?
easurable: How can you measure progress and know if you've successfully met your goal?
chievable: Do you have the skills required to achieve the goal?
elevant: Why am I setting this goal now?
ime-bound: What's the deadline and is it realistic?
Module 5,: Developing an Ethical Practice
Three critical professional ethics that all human services practitioners must understand and commit to:
Human service practitioners have a legal obligation to identify and report abuse. This means understanding the definition of abuse and neglect, be vigilant and observant and report abuse or neglect in a timely manner.
Conflict of Interest
A conflict of interest occurs when practitioners are faced with a situation or decision in which what would be best for the student person served, the school or the organization is different than what would be best for him/her personally.
Relative Confidentiality allows practitioners to privately discuss the individuals they support with other professionals in their agencies in the interest of improving service and support to that individual. In some circumstances, workers can be required by law to reveal information that was either revealed to the worker by the individual.
The Oath of Confidentiality is typically a document that a school or organization will make you sign. These documents make an overarching statement about the commitment to keep information about clients, volunteers, employees and the organization confidential.
Practitioner Well Being
Practitioners who intentionally pursue happiness not only avoid burnout, for themselves. They create the kind of relationships and environments that promote mutual learning and growth for others. They are more able to influence change.
When you are happy, you are more able to be:
resilient during times of change
open to others
In human services, the term burnout is defined as "The condition of someone who has become very physically and emotionally tired after doing a difficult job for a long time"
Developing a Reflective Practice Using the "Practitioners Triangle"
A strong 'sense of self'
: Self awareness, knowing and understanding one's beliefs, values and attitudes, bias motivations
Integrating theory and understanding of self in a way that
contributes to the objectives of full inclusion, citizenship, and social justice for all individuals with disabilities.
: Understanding that we are continually learning and evolving as a sector, and that a keen interest in sector history and it's influences, as well as new research, information, and theory as it is developed, is critical for successful practice
Critical Thinking Skills will assist you to integrate the knowledge you are gaining in ways that can positively impact your practice.
Module 6: Ethics and Ethical Dilemmas
Code of Ethics / Standards
The EA and CSW
will not let prejudices and personal beliefs interfere with the best interest of the students.
EA and CSW should have integrity and be honest.
EA and CSW will not physically or mentally harm students or colleagues.
EA and CSW will practice inclusion
The EA and CSW will respect the privacy of students, use information appropriately, maintaining confidentiality.
EA and CSW should treat his/her students/clients equally and respectful.
The codes of ethics for EA and CSW are designed to protect the rights of ALL the students and clients. It is important that EA and CSW understand that when they get a position they are agreeing to follow the code of ethics.
From decision making to ethical choice making.
"Resolution of a current or potential conflict in values depends upon recognizing the values at stake, collecting the relevant information needed to analyze the ethical problem, deciding whether any course of action serves all values effectively, and choosing a course of action that promotes important values as effectively as possible.” (Forrow, Arnold, and Frader, 1991).
Module 3: Roles and Responsibilities
Including the Education Assistant and Community Support Worker role in protecting individual rights and contributing to the broader social justice movement.
Areas of Support
Home and Community Support
Other Types of Support
Working toward broader systems, and/or social policy change
Several people work/act/speak together to achieve a common goal
A person act/speaks with or on behalf of another person who has a concern
Speaking up and speaking out for your rights
Four Fundamental Principles
Primary EA Roles
Promoting inclusive schools and inclusive classrooms
Accommodate individualized learning needs
Adapt or modify curriculum using universal design strategies
Every student has an inherent right to education basis of equality of opportunity
No student is excluded from, or discriminated within education on grounds of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, disability, birth, poverty, or other status
Becoming a Critical Thinker
Community Support Worker
Module 1: Values Beliefs and Attitudes
Snow, K. (2009). People first language [Web Hosted PDF link] Retrieved from
Rioux, M.H.. “Disability: The Place of Judgment in a World of Fact,” presentation to 10th World Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectional Disability (LASSID). Helsinki, Finland. July 1996, Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. Vol. 40. 1997.
Bill, N.I. & Levine, J. Working with people: the helping process, Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2005
Etmanski, A. 2009. Safe and Secure - 6 Steps to Creating a Good Life for People with Disabilities pp. 15
Part 2: Exploring society's Perceptions of disability