IDEA (Low Incidence (20% of all students with disabilities) (Visual…
Low Incidence (20% of all students with disabilities)
Directions and instructions
based on the student's strongest mode of communication.
Repetition and practice on previous lessons
Appropriate homework choices and requirements.
The classroom should be arranged in a comfortable way for the movement of the student.
Give verbal instructions to the one who has better hearing than visual
Give instructions at an appropriate pace and always check on understanding.
Use hands-on learning experiences that include a multisensory approach and rely on information available through touch, smell, and movement.
Allow the student to orient the speaker by letting the students to identify themselves when they speak ( if the loss is visual )
Use support staff(interpreters) to help the student in accessing the classroom information
The materials will need to be given on the right side if the field loss on the left side
Deaf and hard of hearing
Personal FM systems
: can send a teacher’s voice from a wireless microphone worn by the teacher through FM radio waves directly to a small receiver worn by the student
Face to Face Communication Systems
can provide assistance when short, one-on-one conversations are needed.
Audio-visual FM Systems
Talking calculators and dictionaries
Optical aids like telescopes, magnifiers, and closed circuit television.
Color , contrast, and the font of materials are really important
Mental Retardation (MR)
Including moderate to severe Intellectual Disabilities
Multiple (20-30) repetitions for skills
Teachers need to present lessons that feature stronger career preparation & life-skills emphasis
Need clear, written, explicit instructions
Charts and organizers that depict the relationships among various related entities are critical in the cognitive special needs classroom.
It's important to explicitly teach each step in the simplest language possible to scaffold new learning
Teachers must give explicit, concrete, simple instructions for tasks
Give more time to complete assessments & tasks
Assistive Technologies & Techniques
Software that remembers passwords, biometrics-based security, and any software that aids memory, analysis, or synthesis of information
Lanyards for IDs, large signs clearly labeling classrooms, and maps, both for indoor and outdoor areas, all help.
Screen Enlargement & Reader Apps:
Apps for the visually impaired can also be of aid to the cognitively impaired.
Commonly Available Devices:
Clock, phone, calendar, and recorder apps are of critical importance to people with cognitive disabilities.
Pictures, maps, charts, and symbols that help clarify directions and explanations are all of benefit in the cognitive special needs classroom.
frequently used items, i.e., edibles like sugar, pudding, and cream are color coded blue; cleaning supplies are color coded red; personal care products like toothpaste, shampoo, and eye drops are color coded yellow (Seiler 2007).
Remotes and other handheld devices with larger, simpler buttons
Word Processing with AT:
Word processors should feature the aforementioned word and menu enlargement, screen reading, and mic input capabilities
Specialized seating arrangements
Face the person directly if the interaction is one on one.
For group interactions try to arrange a room so that everyone can be seen – round tables
Obtain student’s attention prior to speaking
Wave your hand
Tap on the shoulder
Reduce auditory distractions (background noise)
Turn off Radios
Turn off TV
Shut doors into other rooms
Reduce visual distractions
Enhance speech reading conditions
Avoid hands in front of face
No gum chewing
Present information in simple structured, sequential manner
Clearly enunciate speech
Speech (clarity of speech sounds)
Voice (the actual sound produced by the vocal chords)
Language (complexity of grammar, and vocabulary)
Allow extra time for processing information
Repeat or rephrase information when necessary
Frequently check for understanding
(Should easily see the faces of people who are speaking)
Room design modifications
Frames (without glass)
Flashing fire alarm
Captioning or Scripts
Speech-to-text translation captioning
Computer on desk
Buddy help system
Hearing Assistive Technologies - HATS
Frequency Modulator system is like a tiny radio station with its own frequency. An FM system has two parts. One part is a microphone that the speaker wears. The microphone sends a signal directly to the hearing aid, making it easier to hear.
Use light waves to send sounds across a room. The system changes sounds into light and sends them to a receiver. The receiver turns the light waves back into sound. The receiver can be in the hearing aid or worn alone.
Induction Loop System
Work with hearing aids. The loop wire goes under the carpet or in the ceiling, connected to a microphone. An electrical current moves through the wire when someone talks into the microphone. This creates an electromagnetic field in the room. The hearing aid picks up the signal so they can hear the speaker.
Personal hearing device
Instead of using noise, these devices
use vibration and light to alert the individual.
Regular speech, language, and auditory training from a
Speech-language Pathologist and Audiologist
Physical and Occupational Therapist
Use of amplification systems
Services of an interpreter (provided by the school) for those students who use one or more
visual communication modes
Sign Language (including finger spelling)
Key Word Signing
Visual Comprehension Strategies
Favorable seating in the class to facilitate speech-reading
Student near teacher
Student in an area with minimal distractions
Assistance of a note-taker (who writes notes so that the student with a hearing loss can fully attend to instruction)
Instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods such as sign language
Visual Impairments including Blindness
Non-Optical Low Vision Devices
Acetate or colour filters
Bold line paper
Book stands and slant boards
Large print keyboards
Low vision watches
Reading guides with highlighters
screen-magnification and readers
Low / Medium Tech devices for tactical learners
Slate and Stylus
Work and Play trays
Auditory Access Devices
Electronic Dictionary with speech
Speech recognition devices
Refreshable braille display
Braille printer embosser
Braille translation software
Electronic braille note-taker
Optical devices for distance
Optical devices for near-viewing
Flat field magnifiers
Spectacle mounted magnifier
Classroom arrangement is
crucial for students
with physical disabilities.
Make changes to classroom environment
Students with hearing, visual, and physical impairments require adequate space for efficient movement throughout the classroom.
Materials needs to be placed for easier access.
Appropriate seating arrangements and orientation to the classroom and school may be necessary.
Match expectations to curricular objectives and instruction
goals and expectations may not be the same as students without disabilities, but may be related to the course standards and competencies
Allow scheduled breaks
Students with low-incidence disabilities may get exhausted or need time alone (Autism spectrum disorder).
Students with low-incidence disabilities need predictable, structured routines. For students with Autism spectrum disorder, this may help reduce behavioral issues.
such as wheelchairs, scooters, walkers, canes, crutches, specialized chairs, desks or tables prosthetic devices, and orthotic devices
Computer software and hardware
such as voice recognition programs, screen readers, and screen enlargement applications to help students with mobility and sensory impairments use computers and mobile devices
automatic page turners, book holders, and adapted pencil grips to help learners with disabilities participate in educational activities
Lightweight, high-performance mobility devices
that enable persons with disabilities to play sports and be physically active
Adaptive switches and utensils
to allow those with limited motor skills to eat, play games, and accomplish other activities
Devices extend reach
to help perform tasks such as cooking, dressing, and grooming; specialized handles and grips
of the student's medical condition and its effect on the student.
to develop useful posture and movements
that is focused on development of gross and fine motor skills
Ramps, grab bars, and wider doorways
to enable access to buildings.
Other Health Impairments
Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems.
sickle cell anemia
High Incidence (80% of all students with disabilities)
Assistive Technologies for Children with Learning disabilities :
Used with word processing, these software programs allow a user to create, store, and re-use abbreviations for frequently-used words or phrases. This can save the user keystrokes and ensure proper spelling of words and phrases he has coded as abbreviations.
These programmable keyboards have special overlays that customize the appearance and function of a standard keyboard. Students who have LD or have trouble typing may benefit from customization that reduces input choices, groups keys by color/location, and adds graphics to aid comprehension.
Audio books and publications
Recorded books allow users to listen to text and are available in a variety of formats, such as audiocassettes, CDs, and MP3 downloads. Special playback units allow users to and search and bookmark pages and chapters. Subscription services offer extensive electronic library collections.
Electronic math work sheets
Electronic math worksheets are software programs that can help a user organize, align, and work through math problems on a computer screen. Numbers that appear onscreen can also be read aloud via a speech synthesizer. This may be helpful to people who have trouble aligning math problems with pencil and paper.
Freeform database software
Used in conjunction with word processing or other software, this tool allows the user to create and store electronic notes by "jotting down" relevant information of any length and on any subject. He can later retrieve the information by typing any fragment of the original note.
Graphic organizers and outlining
Graphic organizers and outlining programs help users who have trouble organizing and outlining information as they begin a writing project. This type of program lets a user "dump" information in an unstructured manner and later helps him organize the information into appropriate categories and order.
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Classroom Accommodations for children with Learning disabilities:
Provide on audio tape
Provide in large print
Reduce number of items per page or line
Provide a designated reader
Present instructions orally
Administer a test in several timed sessions or over several days
Allow subtests to be taken in a different order
Administer a test at a specific time of day
Allow for verbal responses
Allow for answers to be dictated to a scribe
Provide preferential seating
Provide special lighting or acoustics
Provide a space with minimal distractions
Administer a test in small group setting
Administer a test in private room or alternative test site
Allow frequent breaks
Extend allotted time for a test
Allow the use of a tape recorder to capture responses
Permit responses to be given via computer
Permit answers to be recorded directly into test booklet
Speech and Language Impairment
additional time to complete assignments or make up work
Substituting written papers or projects
for oral presentations, or allowing the student to demonstrate learning one-on-one with you or other teachers.
as much as you can about the student’s specific disability. Speech-language impairments differ considerably from one another, so it’s important to know the specific impairment and how it affects the student’s communication abilities.
is an issue for some children with speech and language impairments.
Taking class time
to teach about bullying can help prevent it.
More natural synthesized speech
a personalized text-to-speech synthesis system that synthesizes speech that is more intelligible and natural sounding to be incorporated in speech-generating devices.
Individuals who are at risk of losing their speaking ability can prerecord their own speech, which is then converted into their personal synthetic voice.
Brain–computer interface research
National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)-funded scientists are studying
how neural signals in a person’s brain can be translated by a computer to help someone communicate.
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices
help people with communication disorders to express themselves. These devices can range from a simple
picture board to a computer program
that synthesizes speech from text.
Another group is developing a
that monitors brain activity that is triggered by visual stimulation.
In this way, people who are locked-in can call for help during an emergency by staring at a designated spot on the device.
Set up personalized goals and strategies
Early detection and intervention is the best strategy
Children with Emotional Behavior Disorders may present extra challenges to caregiver in forms of outbursts and disobedience. The caregiver cannot give into this as it only validates the child’s behavior. Instead caregiver needs to challenge students to keep them learning new skills
Set clear rules and expectations with visual stimulating material
Set up an environment and materials that are stimulating
Establish a quiet cool off area
Teach self-talk to relieve stress and anxiety
Teach and put in place self-monitoring and self-control techniques
Provide time for relaxation techniques
Be aware of your speech and non-verbal cues when talking to the student
Set up goals aimed at social interactions
Use role-playing situations
Use seating arrangement to encourage social interaction
Clearly post rules
Stay consistent in expectations
Set limits and Boundaries
Use behavior contracts
Use a highly structured environment
Develop a cue word for the child to note inappropriate behavior
Low-tech AT Supports
Behavior Charts allow students to visually track
behavior changes and positive outcomes
Vision Boards allow students to visually keep track of goals and reminders for appropriate behavior.
Point/Incentive Sheets allow students to keep track of positive reinforcements and can be a great motivational tool.
Mid-tech AT Supports
The Talklight - its light flashes according tonoise in the room. Helps teach self-monitoring of noise levels and positive reinforcements.
Music Players -iPods, mp3 players, and otherdevices can be used in the classroom to play music and sounds to promote focus and calm.
Reminder Devices -simple vibrations or other observable signals remind a student of their focus behavior.
Hi-tech AT Supports
Multi-sensory Integrated Technology Programs offer complete sensory cues, prompts, and lessons for social and emotional engagement. Scientifically designed to improve the communication between the heart and brain through the nervous system.
ACADEMICALLY: Easily frustrated - Antsy - Edgy - Inappropriate language/tone/topics - Often behind in curriculum -Gives up easily - does not consistently follow directions -Deficits in pragmatic communication
BEHAVIORALLY: Impulsive -Challenges others - Distracted - Fidgety-Verbally aggressive - Physically aggressive
SOCIALLY: Difficulty reading social cues -Lie - Steal - Noncompliant -Struggles with relationships -Isolates self-Does not know how to take turns/play fair
PHYSICALLY: Eating disorders - Tired - Daydreaming - Anxious -Nervous ill -Tense - Withdrawn-Disheveled - Psychosomatic - Daydreaming
Link to the video
Students with Disabilities: 14 Special Education Categories
Assistive Technology for parents and teachers
text to speech software
help students to gain control of what they need to say
FM systems can help by connecting the teacher and student in an audible way with radio broadcast
link to FM Systems
help with falling behind is in literacy and reading :check: :
:check: make reading more accessible for children who struggle to make sense of the words
an alternative way to traditional reading. :check:
Engaging in frequent discussion is an effective strategy. Parents and teachers can read aloud, then ask for comments and opinions about the book. The goal is to make children feel comfortable sharing their thoughts with adults and peers.
Alternative strategies like drawing pictures or writing short phrases give children a way to express themselves and build confidence in their writing ability. Success in small tasks will motivate them to work harder to improve writing skills.
Manipulatives are educational aids that supplement and reinforcement specific skills. Alphabet letter tiles, wooden blocks and plastic shapes are materials that help children by providing a tangible example of a concept.
Keep in mind that a student that displays behaviors that are distracting would work better at an individual desk.
Minimizing distractions and the possibility for over stimulation will assist the student with focusing. For example, do not seat the student next to a window facing the playground.
If there is not a way to seat the students in the classroom in his own space, pairing him with a capable buddy that can assist with keeping the student on track without it being detrimental to his own education would be beneficial.
Establishing procedures and routines. Structure and predictability in learning give a sense of stability to kids who already know or sense that they are different from other children. Parents need to work with teachers to establish similar expectations, so that school and home habits are not totally incompatible.
The learning capacity of a young child (3-9 years old) is significantly limited, impaired, or delayed and is exhibited by difficulties in one or more of the following areas: receptive and/or expressive language; cognitive abilities; physical functioning; social, emotional, or adaptive functioning; and/or self-help skills.
Communication development (speech and language)
Cognitive development (intellectual abilities)
Physical development (fine motor skills, gross motor skills)
Social or emotional development (social skills, emotional control)
Adaptive development (self-care skills)
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Assistive Devices/ Technology
Alternative Augmentated Communication (ACC)
: The most common Speech Generating device that allows for children with autism to "verbally communicate".
Talking Word Processor
: Writing software programs that provide speech feedback used to address poor fine motor, motor planning, cognitive, or combination.
Portable Word Processor
: Keyboard with small LED screen used t0 address Poor fine motor or motor planning skills for writing .
Visual Assistants Electronic/Non- Electronic Organizers:
raphic symbols sequentially laying out events/activities (may also have auditory cues used to address Behavior issues and develop task completion/focus and language/ communication skills.
Earphones that cancel extraneous environmental noise used to address auditory overstimulation issues
Text To Speech Software:
Program used to convert text from print to audio formats used to address Poor reading comprehension, decoding, fluency, etc.
Assistive Listening Systems
:Speaker worn transmitter and listener worn receiver or near placed speakers used to address Deficits in attention and listening comprehension and auditory overstimulation issues.
Portable Word Processor :
Keyboard with small LED screen used to address Poor fine motor or motor planning skills for writing.
Create visual cues for content material
Create structure, routine, schedule, supported with visual cues
Support non-verbal students with communication symbols for content area discussions
Traumatic Brain Injury
Memory and organisation
Speech recognition software
Screen reading software
Tinted overlays for reading
Positioning and Mobility
Specialised wheel-chairs or desks
Speech generating devices
Word processing device
Automatic page turners
Adapted pencil grips
Reinforce lengthening periods of attention to appropriate tasks
Probe skill acquisition frequently and provide repeated practice
Avoid figurative language
Teach compensatory strategies for increasing memory
Demonstrate new tasks, state instructions, and provide examples to illustrate ideas and concepts
Anticipate reduced stamina and increased fatigue; provide rest breaks as needed
Provide repetition and consistency