New Media & Digital Culture (Social Networking & Media (Network…
New Media & Digital Culture
Social Networking & Media
The equation [n x (n - 1) = n2 - n] means that membership in a network has a value to the user but is more valuable to other users. This is known as
is a property of a project that determines the extent to which it can be broken down into smaller components. A nuclear plant his low modularity, whereas Wikipedia has high modularity.
Network externalities can be either positive or negative.
One study has found the accuracy of entries in Wikipedia to be broadly comparable to the
One criticism of social networking is that it creates "public sphericles" and fragments public issues.
The term SNS stands for:
Social Networking Sites
Three types of social capital
Bridging social capital
, by weaker, less dense but more cross cutting ties
Linking social capital,
by connections between those with differing levels of power or social status
Bonding social capital
, strong social bonds between individuals
In the Social Network, Mark Zuckerberg creates the social networking site that would become known as Facebook, but is later sued by two brothers who claimed he stole their idea, and the co-founder who was later squeezed out of the business.
Network Theory Components
Being small worlds
: Individual agents within a network have a lot of connections, they are not all equally important.
The strength of weak ties
: different forms of information can become available.
Hubs and connectors
: points through which a large amount of traffic is distributed.
Power laws of distribution
: it is estimated that for any complex network whose properties are non-random, 20 per cent of agents will account for roughly 80 per cent of traffic, regardless of the scale network.
: complex communications network in which we can participate as consumer, producers or both
Clay Shirky's "cognitive surplus
": people choose to participate and engage in social media rather than engage in passive media.
Games Technology, Industry, Culture
The gaming industry's revenues have exceeded the movie and music industries in the US.
The decline of the Golden Age of Arcade Games was partially due to a shift towards home-based games, such as
Employment in the games industry is male dominated and lacks diversity.
refers to the use of game mechanics in non-game contexts such as education.
is the most popular PC-based game
are the most responsible for financing the development costs of games
the player is emotionally attached to the outcome
the player exerts effort in order to influence an outcome
, quantifiable outcomes
games are rule-based
same game can be played with or without real-life consequences.
Games and game platforms
games within social media platform
In traditional games industry, there are five major players in the value chain, which consist of:
game developers, game publishers, game distributors, game retailers and game consumers.
New Media & the Transformation of Higher Education
Digital media technologies enable more flexible delivery of education.
Main competitor of universities:
The five P's
: What motivates different cohorts of students to undertake higher education
How are governments responding to these nes developments
What aspects of teaching and learning can be enhanced through new media.
What do changes mean for the experience of student learning
: How can digital media technologies better facilitate the delivery of higher education
One criticism of MOOCs is that they are "devoid of local context."
stands for Massively Open Online Courses
The largest for-profit higher education provider in the US:
University of Phoenix
Key features of MOOC:
-courses are scalable to an unlimited size
-courses are not for academic credit
-free to students
Completion rates for MOOCs are extremely low.
Growth in the Higher Education Sector:
shaping the mind and character of ruling class, a preparation for elite roles
transmission of skills and preparation for a broader range of technical and economic elite roles.
adaption of the whole population to rapid social and technological change.
Approaches to New Media
An example of "technology lock-in" is the
The idea that new technologies are "self-generating" and are invented in an independent sphere that then create new societies is
Social shaping of technology
is the alternative view to technological determinism. It argues that technological innovation is a "social product."
Media theorists Marshall McLuhan and Raymond Williams present completely opposite views of how media technologies are developed and used.
is a media theorist who described media technologies as "extensions of man."
Income levels, gender, and socioeconomic status still exist as barriers to full and equal participation in new media.
Actor-network theory proposes that anything that makes a difference is an "actor" and completely rejects
Kranzberg's First Law
is that "technology is neither good, nor bad, nor is it neutral."
Silicone Valley (California), Bangalore (India), and Multimedia Super Corridor (Malaysia)
Daniel Bell argues that the rise of the services economy and the growing use of computer-driven knowledge technologies were central to what he described as the 'post -industrial society'
by Spike Jonze shows a man who falls in love with an operating system
Introduction to New Media & Twenty Concepts in New Media
is a non-profit organization founded in 2001, "that is devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to legally build upon and share."
is sharing and modifying of computer programs to explore how they work and explore them, as well as gaining entry (often illegally) into a security system.
is the idea that "none of us can know everything; each of us knows something; and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills."
is "a way of thinking about the relationship that new media has to old media."
is credited with developing the World Wide Web.
is the "synthesis of the two histories" of historical communication technologies and new media
: Inequity in access to computers and internet; ability to use these technologies to participate in real life.
3 C's of Computing
networks, artifacts and practices
media and information
Digital media and information technologies
Tapscott and Williams identified four core principles of what they termed Wikinomics
which includes both the open source and open standard movements
or the promotion of collaboration through open, horizontal networks, as opposed to closed and hierarchical project teams
and the adoption of less proprietary approaches to intellectual property
and seeking to source knowledge/resources from all parts of the globe
Web 2.0: identifies developments in internet software and platforms that enabled Web applications to move from being static and based around a push of content.
: four-pronged approach to considering the effects of media