Realism & Naturalism (Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman: 'A New England…
Realism & Naturalism
'A White Heron'
3rd pers, limited omniscient
the change in narration/tense is signal of the climax, the experience
the boy's whistle
symbolises modern society, destruction
determined and aggressive
'Here she comes now...'
present tense omniscient
a story of independent women being threatened by the hunter's society
Sylvia and Grandma symbolises 'the old way of life'
nature > mankind
Sarah O. Jewett (1849-1909)
grew up in rural Maine after Civil War
works comment on industry vs. landscape, and economy
- preserving a region, nostalgia
Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
stories focused on character's physical and psychological responses to their environment
narration doesn't judge, but leaves readers to decide for themselves
may be seen as an early modernist
abandoned the absolute omniscient narrator
'The Open Boat'
3rd pers narration + omnicient narrator / limited omnicient
changes somewhat throughout the story
In medias res
men stuck at sea in a life boat because a ship sank
the light in the distance, are they saved at last?
the light, houses, and people get closer, so close yet so far away
the danger of the surf
the man-made object (the boat) is insufficient against nature
the boat capsizes and the men jump
Reversal and resolution
Billie (the only one that is named) is dead and the other men gets taken care of
'why is this happening to me?'
'Am I important in the grand scheme?'
based on a real event that Crane experienced and afterward wrote a news paper article about
Late 19th C. and early 20th C.
focus on class and society
questions the natural order of society
emphasizes observation and the scientific method
the working class
Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman: 'A New England Nun' (1891)
classic housewife i.e. meticulously clean and fond of her home
she chooses her own life without regard to men
3rd pers narrative
focus on nature
an opportunity that passed by (Joe Dagget) but a result that was satisfactory
engaged to Joe
haven't seen him in 14 years
lives seemingly happy alone
has a hermit of a dog