Organic Chemistry lecture 1 (Atomic orbitals (the region or volume of…
Organic Chemistry lecture 1
the region or volume of space in which the probability of finding an electron is highest.
1s orbital: the lowest energy orbital
2s orbital the second harmonic state
2p orbital: three possibilities (Px, Py, Pz)
The valency of carbon
Valency is the number of chemical bonds formed by the atoms of a given element
Hybridsation : the mixing of atomic orbitals to produce an equivalent number of hybrid orbitals. These hybrid orbitals are energetically more favorable for bonding purposes.
C= 1s 2, 2s 2, 2px 1, 2py 1, 2pz 0
C= 1s 2, 2s 1, 2px 1, 2py 1, 2pz 1
Once the carbon is in its excited state (C*) with four unpaired electrons, the four atomic orbitals (A.O.s) can be mixed together to form four equivalent hybrid orbitals (H.O.s). This process is called hybridization.
Tetrahedral structure of methane.
The methane molecule is made up of four C-H sigma bonds. Each of the three hybrid Sp3 orbitals of carbon undergoes end-on overlap with the s orbitals of the hydrogen atoms. This results in the formation of four sigma bonds that adopt a tetrahedral geometry
Tetrahedral carbon 109.5 degrees.
The carbon atoms in an alkane are saturated. A single bond between two bonds is called a sigma bond. a sigma bond contains two electrons, one from each mutually bonded atom. These two electrons share a common bonding orbital. The four bonding orbitals of a saturated carbon atom are arranged in the shape of a tetrahedron with the carbon atom at its centre.
Hydrocarbons: The most simple organic molecules
Contain only C and h atoms. Can be chains or rings ( acyclic or cyclic ) . The basic structural units of organic chemistry.
HYDROCARBONS AND CARBOHYDRATES
Natural gas, petrol, diesel and oil are made up of hydrocarbons.
Aliphatic hydrocarbons: are hydrocarbons that do not contain aromatic components. Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes
Simple nomencalture: Methane CH4, Ethane C2H6, Propane C3H8, Butane C4H10