CENSORSHIP (BOOKS ( German-Jewish poet, Heinrich Heine, had declared:…
The Nazis drew up a list of over 2,500 banned authors and encouraged the burning of books that challenged Nazi ideas and values.
In 1933, 20,000 unacceptable books were destroyed at the University of Berlin. These included books written by Jews, pacifists, socialists and communists.
Permission was needed to publish books. Goebbels used his own novel, called Michael, as a model for suitable literature.
Nazi-dominated student groups carried out public burnings of books they claimed were “un-German.” The book burnings took place in 34 university towns and cities.
German-Jewish poet, Heinrich Heine, had declared: "Wherever books are burned, human beings are destined to be burned too.
Book Burnings, 1933
All radio output was controlled by Goebbels’ Ministry through the Reich Broadcasting Corporation
Germans lining up for radios
Listening to foreign stations was banned.
9 million radios were sold cheaply so that most Germans could afford one and thus be indoctrinated.
These “People’s Receivers” could only be tuned to the Nazi station
Radio wardens were used to ensure people listened to major speeches being broadcast.
Newspapers could only print stories approved by the Nazis.
Jewish journalists were banned.
Editors had to join the Nazi Party or be dismissed.
Daily briefings were held for editors to tell them what to print and where to place articles in their newspapers.
Any art produced by Jewish people (dead or alive) or thought to be un-German or undermining German ideals
over 6,500 works of art were removed from display across Germany that were considered Modernist, Cubist, Expressionist or Surrealist
Those who produced Degenerate art were subject to sanctions: fired from teaching positions, banned from exhibiting art even banned from producing art
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner fled to Switzerland and later committed suicide
An exhibition was formed out of many of the forbidden artworks. These works were presented to the public in an exhibit intended to incite further repulsion of the "perverse Jewish spirit" penetrating German culture
Hitler: anyone who sees and paints the sky green and the fields blue ought to be sterilised
The Nazis were also strongly opposed to jazz music, which they referred to as “degenerate Negro music” from racially inferior people.
Like Degenerate art, the government attempted to isolate, discredit, discourage, or ban works that were considered to be harmful or decadent.
Degenerate music also featured in Degenerate art exhibition
These artists were often banned from composing or having their songs played, artists often went into exile and some were sent to camps
ALL MAIL IN AND OUT OF GERMANY
All mail leaving and entering Germany was monitored.
Mail was refused if it was illegible, included sensitive information, any form of code, abbreviations, invisible ink, any Yiddish or Hebrew language, photographs, braille, puzzles or games (e.g. crosswords), or if the letter was longer than 4 pages
Letters from Germany to USA
Mail was forbidden to any hostile countries
Jewish men and women bearing first names of “non-Jewish” origin had to add “Israel” and “Sara' to their names
Any mail leaving camps had to be written in German
All film plots had to be shown to Goebels for approval before production
Films had to be entertaining. Heavy topics were not allowed, but references to the benefits of Nazism were permitted.
common themes were German greatness and anti-Semitism, Love stories with pro-Nazi slants because they helped people escape from reality.
The Nazi Party gradually took control of film production and distribution. Babelberg became the German Hollywood and Membership of Reichsfilmkammer for film makers was compulsory.
Cinema tickets were very cheap to ensure people came to watch the films
Tarzan was a film banned in Germany
Most Hollywood films were banned
From the 1920s onwards, the Nazi Party targeted German youth as a special audience for its propaganda messages
Many books were deemed unfit and German educators introduced new textbooks that taught students love for Hitler, obedience to state authority, militarism, racism, and antisemitism.
Board games and toys for children served as another way to spread racial and political propaganda to German youth
Boys vs Girls
In January 1933, the Hitler Youth had only 50,000 members, but by the end of the year this figure had increased to more than 2 million. By 1936 membership in the Hitler Youth increased to 5.4 million before it became mandatory in 1939
After 1933, the Nazi regime purged the public school system of teachers deemed to be Jews or to be “politically unreliable.
instruction aimed to produce race-conscious, obedient, self-sacrificing Germans who would be willing to die for Führer and Fatherland.
Founded in 1926, the original purpose of the Hitler Youth was to train boys to enter the SA (Storm Troopers),. After 1933, leaders sought to integrate boys into the Nazi national community and to prepare them for service as soldiers in the armed forces or, later, in the SS.