Cardiovascular System (Heart (Microscopic Anatomy of Myocardium (very…
Made of simple squamous epithelium and a little areolar connective tissue.
Surrounds the outer part of the heart.
Closely adheres to the heart.
Is found in between the parietal pericardium and visceral pericardium, filled with serous fluid.
A sac that encloses the heart, made of dense irregular connective tissue.
Layers of the Heart Wall
Also known as the visceral pericardium, it is a serous membrane.
Muscular tissue of the heart.
Lines the heart and covers valves, this allows ventricles to force blood out efficiently.
Microscopic Anatomy of Myocardium (very similar to skeletal muscle)
A tube that goes inside the cell around the myofibrils. It is a part of the sarcolemma.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is a storage of calcium.
These are only found in cardiac muscle. They contain fascia adherens, desmosome-like structures.
Smaller than a muscle fiber.
The control center.
Left Atrioventricular Valve (Bicuspid)
Allows blood flow from the left atrium, to the left ventricle.
Aortic Semilunar Valve
Allows blood flow from the left ventricle, through this valve to be able to circulate through the rest of the body.
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Allows blood flow from the right ventricle, to the lungs.
Right Atrioventricular Valve (Tricuspid)
Allows blood flow from the right atrium, to the right ventricle.
Conduction of the Heart
Known as the "Bundle of His".
The AV bundle separates into two branches.
Atrioventricular Node (AV)
Delay the signal while the ventricles fill with blood.
Sinoatrial Node (SA)
Our "pacemaker", found in the right atrium. Generates an electrical signal, and the atria contract using gap junctions to spread the signal.
Form a network in the ventricular walls of the heart that conduct the electrical signal sent from the sinoatrial node.
These are exchange vessels. They are "leaky".
More leaky, they have pores or "windows". Found in small intestine, kidneys, choroid plexus, and endocrine glands.
These vessels are large and winding. Found in the liver, red bone marrow, and spleen.
Most common capillary. Found in the central nervous system, lungs, skin, skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle. These are the least leaky.
Has much less muscle, collapses when there is no blood. These vessels carry blood back to the heart.
They have valves which help prevent back-flow of blood, and fewer elastic fibers.
Same characteristics as a medium-sized vein, except has more tunica externa, and less tunica media and tunica intima.
Smallest of the veins. They have one to two layers of smooth muscle and they are similar to capillaries having an exchange feature.
Has thick muscle and keeps structure. These vessels carry blood away from heart.
More muscle than other arteries, they take blood to organs/ parts of organs.
They have one to two layers of smooth muscle, and are capable of changing diameter to regulate blood flow.
Able to move large amounts of blood, they have many elastic fibers. Able to stretch and recoil, they propel blood forward. Found in the aorta, pulmonary trunk, and large branches of the aorta.
White blood cells.
Very grainy and dark.
Smallest, very dark, cytoplasm has a crescent moon.
Very grainy, cytoplasm is red-ish.
Biggest, irregular shape.
Have multi-lobed nucleus.
Created in red bone marrow, they are pieces of a megakarocyte (cytoplasm). They have a role in plugging leaks and clotting.
Bags of hemoglobin that contain iron and binds oxygen. Created in red bone marrow. Sufficient iron is needed to produce them.
Made of 90% water, and 10% other that includes ions, sugar, hormones, vitamins, amino acids, lipids, etc. Over a 100 different molecules make up plasma.
Antibodies that protect us from pathogens, transporters.
Involved in blood clotting.
Helps keep water in blood vessels.