Your Lifeline for English 300 (Bedford Glossary Essential Terms (Paradox:…
Your Lifeline for English 300
Bedford Glossary Essential Terms
Image: a visual, physical, representation of something or a mental picture of some visible thing
Symbol: Something that stands for or suggests something larger and more complex- often an idea or a range of interrelated ideas attitudes and practices.
Voice: a term referring to the manner of expression of the speaker in a literary work particularly the narrative or a character in the work. Voice can also be a certain style or just the persuasive human presence in a work.
Lyric Poem: a poem spoken from 1st person that expresses the feelings or thoughts of the 1st person speaker.
Metaphor: making a relatable comparison undirectly
Simile: making a relatable comparison directly using like or as
Irony: A contradiction or incongruity between or appearance or expectation and reality.
Paradox: A statement that seems self-contradictory or nonsensical on the surface but that upon further examination may express and underlying truth.
Genre: a category of artistic composition that is defined by its form, style or subject matter.
Dramatic Monologue: A single person talking to an audience who eventually ends up revealing something.
Drama: A series of literary work usually intended for performance before an audience
Tragedy: A serious and often somber drama that is written in verse that often ends in a distaster
Analysis: most analyze the literature in front of you in this class. Ground your opinion in the literature not on facts out of nowhere.
Enjambment: the continuation of a sentence without a stop at the end of the line.
"My Last Duchess"
Features an erratic speaker telling a disinterested audience about how he killed his wife. Duke flaunts his wealth through his art objects in order to gain popularity.
Duke reveals how he killed his "last Duchess" in this lyric poem making it a dramatic monologue.
Duke speaks without pause (enjambment). Serves the purpose of showing the reader that the speaker is erratic and may be hiding some guilt.
"The Road Not Taken"
About a decision the speaker chooses not to take. When in reality the two choices are exactly the same but both equally important.
Poem is ironic because both roads end up of being of equal importance. It doesn't matter what road the speaker takes
"My Papa's Waltz"
Highlights an interaction between child and father. Could be commenting on abuse or affection. Has a nostalgic feel and 3 beat foots that give it a waltz like feeling
Poem features vivid imagery that helps the viewer to see the scene in their head and create a more nostalgic feel. "The hand that held my wrist/ Was battered on one knuckle;/ At every step you missed/ My right ear scraped a buckle."
"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"
Poem features a undecisive and insecure speaker. Women are acting as the background noise as Prufrock keeps repeating "there will be time" for him to speak to one of them.
A Streetcar Named Desire
Desire: lots of things are desired by the characters in the play
Desire to be desired
Blanche is scared to be seen in any form of light in the play. She is mainly scared of being seen in the light because she is afraid that it will reveal to the reader that she is older than she says.
She is also scared that the light will reveal her secrets about what happened in Belle Reve as well in her deeper past.
Quotes About Light
"Let's leave the lights off. Shall we?" (103)
"It was like you suddenly turned a blinding light on something that had always been half in shadow, that's how it struck the world for me."(114)
"The searchlight which had been turned on the world was turned off again and never for one moment has there been any light stronger than this--kitchen--candle..." (115).
I don’t think I ever seen you in the light. That’s a fact! [..] You never want to go out in the afternoon. […] You never want to go out till after six and then it’s always some place that’s not lighted much. […] What it means is I’ve never had a real good look at you." (143-144)
"There has been some progress since then! Such things as art -as poetry and music--such kinds of new light have come into the world since then!" (83).
Abuse of Women
Women are repeatedly mistreated by being physically and mentally abused by the men in the play.
Stanley specifically hits Stella multiple times throughout the play. Stanley follows the cycle of abuse though and makes up with Stella just to abuse her again.
Blanche is even physically assaulted by Stanley at the end of the play amidst an argument with Stanley.
Blanche is displeased at the fact that Stella left Belle Reve to marry someone in a lower class than the DuBois.
Blanche constantly makes comments at her disgust of Stella's current life state. Shames Stella for marrying someone of the lower class and leaving her high class life.
"You can't have forgotten that much of our bringing up, Stella, that you just suppose that any part of a gentleman's in his nature!" (82)
"Sit there and stare at me, thinking I let the pace go! I let the place go? Where were you! In bed with your--Polack!" (22)
"He acts like an animal, has an animal's habits! Eats like one, moves like one, talks like one! There's even something--sub-human--something not quite to the stage of humanity yet! Yes, something--ape-like about him, like one of those pictures I've seen in--anthropological studies!" (83)
A Streetcar Named Desire
Lots of similarities between the film and text but the cinematic version adds elements that can not be portrayed as well over text.
Facial emotion: Viewer is able to readily see the emotion on the faces of the characters instead having to draw conclusions on how the character might be feeling.
Framing: The framing of the scene plays a huge role in the movie. Camera would change angles in order to highlight certain power shifts in the narrative of the story.
Example: When Stella is coming back to Stanley after hitting her Stella is framed at a higher angle in order to get across the message that Stella is the one with power over Stanley now.
Lighting: Even thought the movie is in black and white the viewer can still see shadows cast by objects. These shadows play a big role in making sure Blanche stays shrouded in darkness.
Music: Music helps to set the mood for all the scenes. Scenes where Stanley is angry are usually met the banging drums while dramatic, longwinded scenes are met with soft more whimsical music.
Story is told by Nelly, the housemaid. this causes the reader to take what Nelly says with a grain of salt. The story is also being recounted by Longwood creating a double filter.
Story could be exaggerated in arts or details could of been left out.
Narration is like a "Russian Doll" because you have Nelly telling a story about how Heathcliff told her a story once as Lockwood recounts it to the reader.
Heathcliff is a adopted by Mr. Earnshaw from Liverpool and brought back to Wuthering Heights where he is not accepted by the rest of the family.This is due to Heathcliff's dark skin and dark eyes. Heathcliff's appearance is a main theme of the novel because it affects the way people view/treat him
"So from the very beginning he bred bad feeling in the house..." (38)
Take my colt, Gipsy, then!" said young Earnshaw. "And I pray that he may break your neck: take him, and he damned, you beggarly interloper! and wheedle my father out of all he has: only afterwards show him what you are, imp of Satan." (40)
Mrs. Earnshaw was ready to fling it out the doors: she did fly up, asking how he could fashion to bring that gipsy brat into the house..." (37).
Heathclff disappears after hearing that Catherine is going to marry Edgar. Heathcliff returns stronger and educated in order to win the love of Catherine
"a tall, athletic, well-formed man; beside whom my master seemed quite slender and youth-like. His upright carriage suggested the idea of his having been in the army. His countenance was much older in expression and decision of feature than Mr. Linton's; it looked intelligent, and retained no marks of former degradation. A half-civilised ferocity lurked yet in the depressed brows and eyes full of black fire, but it was subdued" (95).
It is implied that Heathcliff might of joined the army and acquired some wealth from a distant relative. Heathcliff renturns enpowered to enact revenge on Hindley and those who have done wrong against him. Heathcliff is determined to marry Catherine and rule over all of Gimmerton.
Heathcliff slowly goes crazy as he imperializes Gimmerton and tries to win over Catherine
There is an intermingling of families in the novel which makes it somewhat confusing for the reader to understand or get lost. It helps to have a family tree:
Young Catherine Earnshaw would follow Heathcliff around in loving admiration Catherine started to become much like Heathcliff and was considered a tomboy. One day while on an adventure with Heathcliff, Catherine gets bitten by a dog which forces her to recover at the Lintons.
Catherine is forced to become a lady and returns back to Wuthering Heights as a changed woman. She decides to marry Edgar instead of her true love Heathcliff
"...Raise her self-respect with fine clothes and flattery, which she took readily; so that, instead of a wild, hatless little savage jumping into the house, and rushing to squeeze us all breathless there 'lighted from a handsome black pony a very dignified person with brown ringlets..." (52).
"He took to Heathcliff strongly, believing all he said and petting him up far above Cathy, who was too mischievous and wayward for a favorite" (38)
the novel features the theme of class mobility. Heathcliff the whole time deals with the strains of being a race that is commonly associated with the lower class. He is forced to fight his way up the class ladder in order to gain wealth.
Women also do not have very much power in the novel just due to the fact that women do not own the money.
Characteristics of Billy
Billy is known for his good looks and friendly nature. Despite his good looks though Billy is very innocent. He lacks the knowledge to know what is going on around him. Billy fails to register irony or satire causing lots of things to fly under his radar.
"Of self-consciousness,, he seemed to have little or none, or about as much as we may reasonably input to a dog of Saint Bernard's breed." (13)
"the comeliness and power, always attractive in masculine conjunction, hardly could have drawn the sort of honest homage that the Handsome Sailor in some examples received from his less gifted associates." (8)
Captain Vere is rooted in the form and law of the Navy. Vere believes that form is what prevents complete chaos from erupting. This is why Vere decides to kill Billy even though he enamored with him.
Claggart is jealous of Billy so he tell Vere that Billy is starting a mutiny. This enrages Billy causing him to kill Claggart with a punch. This forces Captain Vere to make a decision. Either punish Billy or risk his ship rebelling against him.
Queer Desire Theme
Billy is easily attractable due to his figure and form. Claggert loves Billy but is jealous of how loved Billy is. Vere also displays a loving nature towards Billy that could be taken as queer.
Follows the story of
loosely. Viewer sees a young soldier that is well loved by the general (Bruno) of the French legion. This causes Galoup to grow jealous much like Claggert. The young soldier, Sentain, ends up punching Galoup which forces Sentain to be banished from the French legion. Unlike Melville's story through the general finds out that Galoup and ends up banishing him
The story also has the theme of queer desire. Men are mostly shirtless and there is an aura that Bruno or Galoup is attracted to Sentain.
There are cheographed training scenes that show pattern and unison. They are almost ballet like in nature. There is also a juxtaposition of music throughout from Britten's opera score from
to Turkish dance music to American music.
Both the book and the movie have the theme of form creating desire. By the men being locked in close quarters forced to be together at all times it creates desire to break the form.
D2L Discussion Posts
The D2L posting about the staging of
A Streetcar Named Desire
is very important in understanding the underlying themes of the play.
Williams uses drawn out stage directions but he does so in order to make sure the reader understands what is going on without the use of dialogue. The posting by Matt Spencer explores the affect of Williams vivid stage directions. He specifically explores scene three where it is said a curtain separates Blanche and Stella from Stanley's poker game. Matt argues that the curtain helps to "heighten the drama" between the two rooms. Matt then writes that the curtain almost acts like "sexual or penetrative" barrier between the women and the men. Mitch breaks this barrier first as he goes into the room to flirt with Blanche. Stanley is the second one to break the barrier as he "pushes through the curtains sexually violently".
Max finishes his posting by saying that Williams uses staging in order to bring forth "symbolic representations of the conflict".
The D2L posting by Odessa Lawrence that talks about the how Emily Bronte challenges the gender stereotypes in her novel,
Odessa writes how Bronte often "describes characters as the opposite gender, and has their personality portrayed unconventionally." Odessa is writing about how Heathcliff is portrayed as "dark" as well as exhibiting "pure masculinity". While Edgar is portrayed as having "feminine" or "girly mannerisms". These characteristics already challenge the typical gender roles but Odessa continues to point out how Bronte challenges them with the portrayal of Catherine. Odessa writes about how Catherine is portrayed as a tomboy in the text until she goes to Thrushcross Grange and is taught to become more lady like. Even after becoming more of a lady Catherine still exhibits "a blend of both masculinity and femininity" and "a mental durability and drive to pursue what she want out of life." Odessa writes that Bronte develops her characters like this in order to make a comment on the typical gender norms.