The Tissue Level of Organization (4.4 (Collagen Fibers- Most common fibers…
The Tissue Level of Organization
Connective Tissue- Fills internal spaces, provides stuctural support, and stores energy
Muscle Tissue- Contracts to produce active movement
Neural Tissue- Conducts electrical impulses and carries information.
Epithelia- Lines the internal passageways and chambers. Also produces glandular secretions.
4.2 - Functions of Epithelia
Glands- Composed on secreting cells derived from epithelia.
Provide physical protection like exposed surfaces
Provide specialized secretions
Exocrine- Secretions are discharged onto the surface of the epithelium.
Endocrine- Secretions are released into the surrounding tissue fluid and blood.
Gap Junction- Two cells are held together by imbedded membrane protein groups called connexons.
Desmosome- The plasma membranes of two cells are locked together by intercellular cement and by membrane proteins.
Basement Membrane- Lies between the epithelium and underlying connective tissues.
Simple Epithelium- Consists of a simple layer of cells covering the basement membrane.
Stratified Epithelium- Provides a greater degree of protection because it has several layers of cells above the basement membrane.
Squamous Epithelium- Cells that are thin and flat, and the nucleus occupies the thickest portion of each cell.
Cuboidal Epithelium- Little hexagonal boxes when seen in three dimension but in simple view they appear square.
Columnar Epithelium- Cells are tall and slim resembling rectangles in sectional view.
Simple Squamous- Found in protected regions where absorption takes place or where a slippery surface reduces friction.
Simple Cuboidal- Provides limited protection and occurs where secretion or absorption takes place.
Simple Columnar- Provides some protection and may also occur in areas of absorption or secretion.
Stratified Squamous- Found where mechanical stresses are severe.
Stratified Cuboidal- Located along the ducts of sweat glands.
Stratified Columnar- Found along portions of the anus and urethra.
Pseudostratified- Produces cillia
Transitional- Is a stratified epithelium that tolerates repeated stretching.
Ground Substance- Protein fluid
Matrix- Something that surrounds the cells
Connective tissue is described as- Support and protection, Transportation of minerals, Storage of energy, and Defense of the body.
Connective tissue Proper- Cells and fibers within a matrix containing a syrupy ground substance.
Fluid Connective Tissue- A watery ground substance containing dissolved proteins.
Supporting Connective Tissue- A matrix of dense ground substance and closely packed fibers.
Fibroblasts- Responsible for producing connective tissue fibers and ground substance.
Macrophages- Release chemicals that mobilize the immune system.
Fat Cells- A large lipid that the nucleus and others are squeezed to the sides of a cell.
Mast Cells- Found near blood vessels, small and mobile.
Collagen Fibers- Most common fibers in connective tissue proper.
Elastic Fibers- Branched wavy, after stretching will return back to their normal state.
Reticular Fibers- A form of branching interwoven framework in various organs.
Adipose Tissue- Loose connective tissue containing lots of fat cells.
Dense Connective Tissue- Made of mostly collagen fibers.
Tendons- Dense regular connective tissue that attach to skeletal muscles.
Hyaline Cartilage- Rough and flexible containing collagen fibers it connects the ribs to the sternum.
Elastic Cartilage- Contains a lot of elastic fibers that made it very flexible.
Fibrous Cartilage- Densely makes the tissue durable and tough.
Mucous Membranes- Include the digestive respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts.
Serous Membranes- Line the ventral body cavity which is the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium.
Cutaneous Membrane- Skin, covers the surface of the body. It consists of stratifies squamous epithelium and dense connective tissue.
Synovial Membrane- Consists of loose connective tissue and an incomplete epithelial tissue.
Muscle Tissue- Specialized for contraction. It involves interaction between filaments of myosin and actin, proteins found in the cytoskeletons of many cells.
3 Types of Muscle Tissue- Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth
Skeletal- Contains very large multi-nucleated cells. Relatively long and slender.
Cardiac- Found only in the heart. It is striated but each muscle cell is smaller than the skeletal muscle and is single nuclei.
Smooth- Found in the walls of blood vessels around hollow organs such as the urinary bladder.
Neural Tissue- Conduction of electrical impulses from one region of the body to another.
Neurons- Several different kinds of supporting cells, neuroglia.
Make up of a Neuron- 1) Cell Body 2) Dendrites 3) One Axon.
Inflammation- Which is swelling, warmth, redness, and causes pain. Inflammation may also cause infection.
Regeneration- The second phase following an injury, damaged tissues are replaced to restore normal function.
Fibrosis- The formation of excess fibrous connective tissue an organ tissue in a reactive process.