Vocabulary and Spelling (Tricky Spellings (Letter string ough
Vocabulary and Spelling
Same or similar meaning
eg. Said - exclaimed, spluttered
Thesaurus is a book of words and their meanings.
Can be used whilst writing to find alternatives for a certain word
Sound the same but different spelling and meaning
eg. Hare and hair, poor and pour
Similar meaning but spelling slightly different eg. Affect is usually a verb & effect is usually a noun.
Letters we do not pronounce
eg. The k in knight, the b in comb
A letter string at the beginning of a word, that changes its meaning
Im and In - also gives a negative meaning.
if the root word begins with an m or p use im,
otherwise us in.
Ir, Un and il - give the root word an opposite meaning.
root word starts with l, use the prefix il.
root word starts with r' generally use ir.
Prefixes from Latin & Greek
eg. bi + cycle = bicycle, tele + scope = telescope, super + market = supermarket, anti + freeze = antifreeze, auto + biography = autobiography
Letter string ough
can make the sounds oh aw uff ow off
eg. Although, thought, enough, plough, cough.
Letter string psych
comes from Greek language
eg. Psychology, psychic
pronounces as an f and also stems from Ancient Greek.
eg. Phonics, apostrophe, geography.
Stephan is an exception as the ph here is pronounced with a v sound
Words ending with o
most nouns ending in o add s in the plural
eg. Avocado > avocados
even those with a vowel before the o just add s
eg. Studio > studios
some nouns ending in o gain the letters es in the plural
eg. Potato >potatoes
others are acceptable with either an s or es
eg. Mango >mangos/mangoes
Latin words - plural endings
some Latin nouns that we used in English form their plural in the Latin way, by adding ae
eg. Alga>algae, larva>larvae
Words ending in f
when a word ends in f, we usually change the f to v and add es or s to make it plural.
eg. Loaf>loaves, thief>thieves
there are exceptions
eg. Chief>chiefs, roof>roofs
some words can have either ending
eg. Scarf>scarfs/scarves, dwarf>dwarfs/dwarves