Chap 6 Theory of Motivation (b)2) Maslow's 5 Hierarchy of Needs (5…
Chap 6 Theory of Motivation
An internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins 1994)
The will to achieve something. (Bedeian, 1993)
Predisposition（倾向） to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific unmet needs. (Buford, Bedeniam & Linder,1995)
Psychological process that gives behavior
purpose and direction
. (Kreitner, 1995)
b) 5 type of theory:
3) Douglas McGregor's Theory X & Theory Y. (no need study)
4) McClelland's 3 Theory of Needs
2) Maslow's 5 Hierarchy of Needs
5) Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation (no need study)
1) Jeremy Bentham's "The Carrot & the Stick Approach"(No need study)
b)1) Jeremy Bentham's "The Carrot & the Stick Approach"
Metaphor (像征）The use of rewards and penalties（惩罚） in order to induce（促使/得到） desired（要求） behavior.
Carrot = Rewards, a sense of motivation
Desire to avoid pain and find pleasure.
Stick = Punishments, a sense of fear/ loosing something
The old story ( Donkey and carrot)
b)4) McClelland's 3 Theory of Needs
People are motivated according to 3 main Arousal-based and socially developed motives.
1) Need for Achievement
The drive to excel, to succeed.
Corresponds to some needs of the Maslow's Theory.
2) Need for power
The need to control others.
3) Need for Affiliation
The desire for close interpersonal relationships.
b)2) Maslow's 5 Hierarchy of Needs
5 level to achieve for higher desire and motivation to keep going.
1) Physiological needs
2) Security/ safety needs
3) Social Needs
4) Esteem needs
5) Need to self-actualization
b)3) Douglas McGregor's 2 theory:
Theory X & Theory Y.
Based on Maslow's Hierarchy of needs.
Assumption of employees dislike work.
Forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
Boss control everything, even if they do more, they won't be appreciated by others.
Happened in reality.
Employees like to work.
Willing to take responsibility, and exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity.
Impossible to achieve in reality.
Because if boss is too nice, worker will ask for more.
No strict control, everyone (employee) had much freedom compare to Theory X, focus on relationship rather than control.
b)5) Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation
Assuming subjects will prefer to be reward, take action to be rewarded instead of getting punishments.
4 kinds of Reinforcements in Organizations:
Etc : Never come late~Award given
Etc : Always late~Deduct salary
1) Positive reinforcement
Etc : Achieve highest target~Rewarded with bonus
Etc : Panel Clinic~To avoid fake MC.
"SKINNER box" theory : You are conditioned by the some factors.
"Train your dog experiment."