Transition to Socialism: The Five Year Plan (Nature (Mutual Aid Team…
Transition to Socialism: The Five Year Plan
Higher Agricultural Producers' Cooperatives (1956-58)
Involves around 200 to 300 families, which was around 1200 people.
Goal: To increase agricultural efficiency, where more food can be produced with less peasants, thus, releasing more peasants for work in factories (a socialist agricultural system)
Overall impact: Gave a bigger role to local CCP agents, but many peasants were unhappy about losing most their land.
Made all land collectively owned, with only a small portion of families retaining their own land.
Soviet financial aid
After the signing of the 'Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance" between the USSR and China, China would hereby received financial and technical assistance from the USSR.
Over 10,000 Soviet engineers were sent to China, helping to create over 300 industrial plants.
Financial assistance primarily consisted of short-term credits, rather than loans.
Lower-stage cooperatives (APCs)
Families were encouraged to pool their resources together to increase agricultural efficiency
Mutual Aid Team
Involved about 6-20 families
It was voluntary for families to participate.
Families retained their own farms, but assisting each other when busy.
By early 1955, 65% of the peasantry participated in the MATs.
Target areas for industrialization
Build up heavy industry, including steel, machinery, chemicals, coal and electricity.
Geographical areas of industralization
Growth of bureaucracy
The emergence of privileged professional elites
New economic inequalities.
Growing gulf between urban and rural areas.
China was devastated by the Chinese civil war and previous foreign invasions
China was previously ruled by a corrupt and incompetent regime
Soviet financial aid
12,000 Soviet experts
3 per cent Soviet funding
high tide of socialism
traditional family farms could not produce enough income to pay for industry
Socialist development of industry
Mao wanted to create a strong and modern China
Largely to be financed by surpluses coming from an efficient agricultural sector.
Nationalization of industry
Chinese companies nationalised with generous compensation
Foreign companies nationalised without compensation
Assess the First Five Year Plan in terms of successes and failures.
In terms of aims
It generally achieved its aims of developing the industry, as China's industrial output boomed in all areas, including crude oil, machine tools and steel.
In terms of nature
In terms of effects
The emphasis on industrial growth came at the expense of agriculture. The production of food could not keep pace with population growth.
As it was focused on heavy industry, it meant that light industry struggled.