Tuberculosis (Etiology (• Primary pulmonary TB:
• Primary pulmonary TB:
- Initial TB infection
- Ghon focus formation in upper lobes
- Hilar lymphadenopathy
• Secondary pulmonary TB:
- Occurs after primary infection
- Dormant TB is reactivated
- Fibrocaseous lesions
• Other forms of TB:
- Bone, e.g. Pott’s disease of the spine
What is TB ?
TB is a granulomatous disease that may affect
any organ, but most commonly affects the
lungs since it is transmitted via aerosol droplets.
• Sputum culture: Ogawa/Löwenstein–Jensen medium.
• Sputum stain: Ziehl–Neelsen stain.
• Transbronchial biopsy: granulomas are diagnostic.
• Pleural fluid analysis and biopsy.
• Radiology: X-ray for infiltrates and
cavitations. Lesions described as millet seeds
in miliary TB.
patient education, especially the importance
of complying with medical therapy.