TYPES AND COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER (IMPACT OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES…
TYPES AND COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER
Types of Computers
they are usually found in the home being specifically designed to be used by one person at a time to perform different tasks.*They are made up of input, output and storage devices all being held together by a base unit.
They need a constant power supply as they do not use batteries
PCs are big and bulky meaning they aren't very portable
The keyboard is easy to use as it is much larger than a laptop keyboard
Cheaper to buy because the components are easy to make.
Laptops are portable computers and are small enough to sit on your lap and are almost as powerful as desktop PCs as they have similar task uses. They also have LCD screens which are saving the computer enery power.
More prone to theft as they are commonly found in public places.
Limited battery life so you need to recharge more frequently
1.Smaller and lighter and are much more easier to transport
3.There is no need to transfer files onto a portable drive
Built in rechargeable battery means they can work without a mains supply
Memory size isn't very large in comparable to laptops and PCs
The small screens make pages difficult to read and small keyboards make it hard to type making it a sower process
Relatively new internet enabled portable computer where they allow normal phone calls to be made but also have an operating system allowing them to run a number of applications such as sending / receiving text messages and even to communicate through the internet
FUNCTIONS THAT CAN BE PERFORMED BY A NUMBER OF APPS:
-streaming of music and videos
voice over internet protocol( telephone network over the internet)
-global positioning system which is the use of maps to navigate different journeys and ways
-send and receive emails
they have a reasonable battery life compared to aptops
1.They are very small in size and are lightweight therefore, they are very easy to carryaround
1.The disadvantage of mainframes computer is their cost. Hardware and software for mainframes are clearly expensive. However, compared to the cost of other routes to security, IT management, virtualization, etc., the cost of mainframes is significantly less.
1.The advantage of a mainframe computer is High-level computing which is one of the main characteristics of mainframe computers is their ability to process data and run applications at high speeds. Business computing requires high-speed input/output (I/O), more than raw computing speed.
Banks educational institutions & insurance companies use mainframe computers to store data about their customers, students & insurance policy holders.
Although Mainframes are not as powerful as supercomputers, but certainly they are quite expensive nonetheless, and many large firms & government organizations uses Mainframes to run their business operations.
1.The advantage that supercomputers offer is decreased processing time but the computer speed is commonly measured in "floating point operations," or "FLOPS."
1.A disadvantage is that supercomputers require massive external storage drives whose bandwidth is fast enough to accommodate the data being analyzed and produced. If storage and bandwidth can't keep up with the data flow, the supercomputer will not be able to work at its full capacity.
The supercomputers are very expensive and very large in size.
The most powerful computers in terms of performance and data processing are the Supercomputers.
IMPACT OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
Biometrics is where a part of a person's body is used for identification purposes and often in place of passwords and physical looks.
IMAPACTS ON EVERYDAY LIFE
MORE SECURE MOBILE PHONES
REDUCED CAR THEFT
INCREASED BUILDING SECURITY
BETTER AIRPORT SECURITY
TYPES OF RECOGNITION:
: pitch, tone and frequency are analyzed to identify people.
fingerprints are kept in a database which can be matched up to those left at crime scenes.
: analyses the shapes of faces
: eye scans analyse the iris.
IMPACTS ON EVERYDAY LIFE
COMPLETELY SECURE PERSONAL INFORMATION
COMPLETELY SECURE VOTING
COMPLETELY SECURE BANK TRANSFERS
COMPLETELY SECURE COMMUNICATION( for militaires)
Emerging technology that allows messages and data to be sent with complete privacy. Encryption in this case refers to scrambling digital data so only authorized people are able to read it
IMPACTS ON EVERYDAY LIFE:
INCREASED LEISURE TIME:
Many devices are able to do things automatically without human assistance.
IMPROVED MEDICAL CARE:
Robots may assist during surgeries which means things will be done more accurately.
INCREASED PERSONAL SAFETY
: Homes may have automatic alarm systems that warn the owners in case of danger.
Transportation are able to drive and park automatically which means more safety.
ACCURATE PREDICTION OF WEATHER:
Computers are able to sift through weather data more accurately.
AI IS BEING DEVELOPED IN THE AREAS:
computers are developed to play against human players.
: where machines are programmed to imitate a human.
: computers that are able to understand different languages spoken to them.
: computers are programmed to make decisions on the information given to them.
Computer science that focuses on creating computer systems to stimulate human intelligence
IMPACTS ON EVERYDAY LIFE
MORE REALISTIC EDUCATION
TRAINING IM DANGEROUS SITUATIONS
MORE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF PHOBIAS
LARGER AND STRONGER BUILDINGS
IMPROVED MEDICAL CARE
EQUIPMENT WITH VR
is needed to create the virtual environment and for processing data .
controls what users hear in the virtual world
:produce 3D images that make up the virtual world
detect hand and finger movements which gets inputted into a computer for processing.
Where computers create an artificial environment which allows users to interact with different environments and settings
3-D AND HOLOGRAPHIC IMAGING
IMPACTS ON EVERYDAY LIFE
GREATER DATA STORAGE
BETTER MOVIE EXPERIENCE
IMPROVED SECURITY (cards include holograms which make it difficult to copy)
Technique where images are made to appear three-dimensional and to actually have depth which works by taking two regular two-dimensional image of the same object and laying one on top of the other
IMPACTS ON EVERYDAY LIFE
QUICKER AND MORE EFFICIENT TRANSLATION (useful for foreigners)
A MORE MULTILINGUAL SOCIETY
MORE ACCURATE DOCUMENTS
LANGUAGE SEARCH ENGINE SOFTWARE
: internet based system
TRANSLATION MEMORY SOFTWARE:
databases which store translated text.
suggests language translations and points out spelling errors.
Where a human translator uses computer software to help in the translation process
TYPES OF ROBOTS
used to move or carry heavy objects (there are also robots that perform dangerous jobs like disposal of nuclear waste.
used to perform repetitive manufacturing tasks.
used in homes to perform cleaning tasks.
used to explore extreme environments .
IMPACTS ON EVERYDAY LIFE
INCREASED PERSONAL TIME
LOSS OF JOBS
MORE EFFICIENT MANUFACTURING
SAFER WORKING ENVIRONMENT
Used to perform a wide range of physical tasks and can be either be automated or controlled by humans.
Types of Operating Systems
Graphical User Interface / GUI
Key Features of GUI
Pointers - Pointers are little arrows that you move across the screen by directing your mouse. Pointers can be used to select and use icons, select options found in menus and reposition folders and icons on the screen.
4. Menus - These allow users to select functions from a list. Each item in the list will perform a different function. Menus usually either 'pop-up' or 'drop-down'.
3. Icons - Icons are 'symbols' or small images / graphics that are used to represent files and commands. Icons can be clicked to carry out a function or open a file. The user operates a mouse to move a pointer over the icon and then clicks it to activate the function. Icons are also used to represent folders.
2. Windows - The user can divide the screen into separate areas known as 'windows'. These windows can be anything from folders to software applications. Windows allow you to work on several tasks at the same time.
1. The main features of a GUI are Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointers.
3. Instead of typing in commands, the user can use a mouse to point and click objects on the screen.
2. However, the graphics do need more computer power
1. GUI's are visual (graphical) interfaces and they are more popular than CLI's because they are very easy to use.
3. Swiping: Swiping is where you swipe your finger across the touchscreen to scroll through a document or turn the page.
2. Rotating: This is where you use two fingers - one finger moves up while the other finger moves down the touch screen to rotate an object.
1. Pinching: This is where you pinch your fingers together across a touchscreen to zoom into an image, application or document on your device. You can also move your fingers apart to zoom out.
4. Call the type of Interface as Post- Wimp
3. Touchscreen technology allows people to use their fingers to select icons and options straight from the device's screen.
2. However, because these devices don't have room for a mouse, the way in which the icons and menus are used is different.
1. Portable devices such as mobile phones, PDA's and tablets use interfaces similar to a GUI (WIMP) where icons and menus are used to input commands.
Command Line Interface / CLI
Key Features of a Command Line Interface
1. The main features of a CLI are that keyboards are used to type in a variety of different commands into a command prompt.
2. The keyboard is used to enter commands to the command prompt
5. Remembering commands and the exact way to enter them can be difficult and so Command Line Interface Operating Systems are considered hard to use.
4. There are over 270 different commands that can be entered at the command prompt. Commands have to be entered precisely without spelling mistakes or else the operating system will return an error.
3. They use no graphics they require very little computer power.
2. Command Line Interface's do not make use of images, icons or graphics.
1. A command line interface is an older style operating system where users type in commands using keyboard.
Tasks of Operating Systems
11. Manages the moving of data to and from a hard disk.
10. Handles system problems and alerts the user. For example if a printer is jammed and cannot printer, the operating system will stop the print job and alert the user with a warning message
9. Manages system security. For example - allows passwords to be added / changed.
8. Loads and runs software applications.
7. It also moves data in and out of memory
4. Makes sure that software needed for the hardware to run is installed.
6. Shares out system memory efficiently. The operating system will decide how much memory to assign to particular tasks.
5. Allows applications software (word-processing, spreadsheets etc) to communicate with the system's hardware.
4. Manages files and folders in the system (Naming, Creating, Moving, Finding and Deleting folders etc).
3. Recognizes peripheral devices such as External Hard Disks, Pen Drive, Web Cam etc.
2. Sends outputs to the monitor or printer.
1. Accepts inputs from the mouse or keyboard.
What are Operating Systems?
They allow components to communicate with each other and enables the computer to run software applications.
An operating system is a software program that manages computer resources.
Features of External Hardware Computer Components
Called non-essential because the system can operate without them.
'Non-essential' hardware components that usually connect to the system externally.
Permanent Output Devices
Temporary Output Devices
When inputted raw data has been processed it becomes usable information. Output devices are pieces of hardware that send this usable information out of the computer.
Automatic Input Devices
Chip and Pin reader
Manual Input Devices
Pieces of hardware that used to get data into a computer
Features of Internal Hardware Computer Components
Storage Devices ( secondary backing storage)
Secondary storage devices permanently store data and programs for as long as we need.
Main function is to allow the computer system to produce sound
Plugged into the motherboard.
Useful in the conversion of analogue data into digital and vice versa.
Internal hardware devices
Processor ( CPU / Central Processing Unit)
Two main brands of CPU
'controls' what the computer does and is responsible for performing calculations and data processing
( Random Access Memory)
Used to temporarily store information
( Read Only Memory)
Non - Volatile Memory (stored information is not lost when the computer loses power.)
Used to permanently store instructions
Video Card / Graphics Card
Hardware devices that display images on the monitor.
Hardware and Software
there are 2 types of software
software is basically a set of instructions (written in computer code) that tells the hardware what to do
coded programs that conrol how the computer works
software cannot be touched or picked up
all the physical parts of a computer that you can see, touch and pick up.
hardware works with computer code to carry jobs such as:
producing an image on a computer screen
moving cursers/ pointers around the screen
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?
WHAT IS ROBOTICS?
WHAT IS BIOMETRICS?
WHAT IS QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY?
WHAT IS VIRTUAL REALITY?
WHAT IS 3-D HOLOGRAPHIC IMAGING?
What is a supercomputer?
WHAT IS A PERSONAL COMPUTER?
WHAT IS A LAPTOP?
WHAT IS A SMARTPHONE?
WHAT IS COMPUTER -ASSISTED TRANSLATION?