Discrete point: testing one element at a time. It isolates the elements.
Example: A spelling test.
Direct: the candidate is required to perform what we wish to measure.
Example: Interviews or presentations to measure speaking skills
Objective: it has right or wrong answers that can be graded objectively.
Example:Multiple choice, true or false tests
Subjective: an opinion is given
Example: Writing tests
Placement: provide information that helps to place students in an appropiate stage for them
Example:French placement tests in the university
Diagnostic: identify learners' strenghts and weaknesses
Example: When language teachers Test students
on the first day of class
Indirect:measures the abilities that underline the skill we want to measure.
Example: Paraphrasing. Grammar and writing
Integrative: testing many language elements
Example:Dictation. Cloze tests
Norm referenced: Standarized tests designed to compare and rank test takers in relation to one another.
Example: IQ Tests. DELF
Criterion referenced: it measures performance against a fixed set of criteria
Example: curricullum of a course
Proficiency: what candidates have to be able to do in the language to be considered proficient.
Example: Taking TOEFL or IETLS
Achievement: how successful students were in achieving objectives
Example: An english reading final exam