Addiction (Prevention & Treatment of Addictions (Psychological…
Prevention & Treatment of Addictions
Psychological treatment options
Physical / pharmacological treatment options
Underlying Mechanics of Addiction
Life events, including chronic or acute stressors
Alienation or marginalized group
Abusive or neglectful home environment
Easy availability of substance (e.g. alcohol as a free gift during promotions?)
Perception in society that it is ‘normal’ to be drunk?
Environmental – Cultural Differences
Network of friends with similar addictions
Post-traumatic stress disorders
Poor self control
body experiences physical withdrawal lasting days or weeks (for certain addictions e.g. alcohol, cigarettes)
Prefrontal cortex is not fully developed in adolescence (11-20 yrs)
Impairment of decision-making is a key feature of addiction
Prefrontal cortex has key role in cognitive functions involved in decision-making
A1 allele of the D2DR gene
Association of alcoholism with genetic factors
: Binds to receptors of specific cells in the body.
Upon binding, the drug alters the biological processes of the cell.
The body’s natural capacity to produce dopamine is reduced. However, the need persists and the drug seems to be the only way to fill it.
As the body adapts to higher levels of dopamine, increasingly larger doses of drugs/experiences are required to produce the same pleasurable experience.
Neurotransmitter - released when the need for pleasure is fulfiled
Signs of Addiction Problems
Feels exhausted and depressed because of drug use
Has frequent accidents and falls
Has health and sleep problems
Conceals drug-taking behaviour, and is afraid of being discovered
Finds excuses to continue using drugs, despite promises to quit
Preoccupied with finding and consuming drugs
Feels remorseful or guilty about drinking
Has cravings to drink in the morning, or needs alcohol to steady his nerves
Feels annoyed when people criticise his drinking
Feels that drinking is getting out of hand and feels the need to cut down
Loses control over drinking
Tells lies to hide/deny the gambling habit
Gambles to escape from emotional problems, worries or frustrations
Gambles in spite of negative consequences, e.g. huge losses,poor job performance, relationship problems.
Borrows money to gamble
Incurs debts as a result of gambling
Gambles with larger amounts of money
Gamble for longer periods of time
Gambles more often
Refers to the physical and psychological dependence
on a drug, substance or behaviour.
Gaming / Internet
Drugs and substances
Irrational thinking and/or denial
Continued involvement with the substance/behaviour despite adverse consequences
Loss of control
Compulsion to use