VERBS (Infinitves (Completes idea of V.
Ad Italiam īre solēmus.
Inf. as Subject
(Neutered noun, sub. of V.)
Vidēre est crēdere.
(To see is to believe;
seeing is believing.)
Inf. in Indirect Statement
(V. of Ind. Statement: Inf.)
Tē hoc fēcisse pūtāvimus.
(We thought that you had done this.)
(İn narratives, emphasis on action, not agent)
Multī in oppidō clāmāre.
(Man men in the town shouted.)
Inf. dependent upon Adj. ala Greek
Servus erat perītus docēre.
(The slave was skilled at teaching.)
(Futurity of command)
Mox veniet; poenās datō.
(He will come soon; he shall pay the penalty.)
(idea, intent, desire, uncertainty, potentiality, anticipation)
Exhortation, 1st S/ P
(Let me come with you.)
Command, 2nd/ 3rd S/ P
İram rēgīnae timeant.
(Let them fear the queen's anger.)
Course of action; Pre./ Imp.
Eum iterum nōn videam?
(Should İ not see him again?)
Wish (utiam/ ut)
(-) (utiam nē/ nē)
(Pre) Im Subj.; (Past) Plu Subj.
Utiam meliōrēs rēs mihi sint!
(If only affairs will be better for me!)
In Dependent Clauses
Indic. (Pre, Fu, Per, Fu Per)
Subj. (Pre (same time as, after), Per (before))
Indic.: (Im, Per, Plu)
Subj.: (Im. (same time as), Plu (before))
(Ut + Subj.; (-) nē)
Magistrōs laudat ut sibi faveant.
(He praises his superiors in order that they will favour him.)
Relative Cs of Purpose
(Quō + ... (comparative))
(quī, quod )
Poēta carmen scrīpsit quod rēgīnae placēret.
(The poet wrote a poem in order that he might please the queen.)
Purpose Cs Intro. by Adv.
(ubi, unde, quō)
In tēctō sē cēlāvit ubi tūtus esset.
(He hid in the house in order that he might be safe there.)
Servōs monet nē verba rīdeant.
(He is warning the slaves that hey not laugh at his words.)
(-) (Ut nōn, nēmō, nihil, numquam)
Tam crūdēlis est ut ab omnibus timeātur.
(He is so cruel that he is feared by all.)
Substantive Cs of Result
(Result Cs as obj./ sub.)
Fit ut nōs sīmus amīcī.
(It happens that we are friends.)
Fore ut + Subj.
İn place of Fu Pass İnf. when no 4th prin. part of V.
Putās fore ut eī adsint?
(Do you think that they will be present?)
Relative Cs of Result
(Rel. C of characteristic + result C.)
Tam senex est quī morī velit.
(He is so old that he wants to die.)
Relative Cs of Characteristic
(General Relative Cs)
(quī, quae. quod + Subj.)
Quid erat quod nōbīs timendum esset?
(What was there which we had to fear?)
Cs of Fearing
(+) (nē), (-) (ut/ nē...nōn)
Veritī sumus nē nōs ōdissent.
(We feared that they hated us.)
Subj. in Subordinate Cs in Indirect Statement
(Tenses depend on main clause)
Virum quem vidērēmus esse frātrem poētae dīxērunt.
(They said that the man whom we saw was the poet's brother.)
Causal Cs (Cum + Subj.)
(Quod/ quia w/ Subj.: Alleged reason)
Cum in İtaliā sīmus, Rōmam ībimus.
(Since we are in Italy, we shall go to Rome.)
(Abl. Ab. can do the same)
Concessive Cs (cum/ quamvīs/ ut + Subj.)
İllūc īvī ut nōllem. (I went there even though I did not want to.)
(Abl. Ab. can do the same)
(Cum + Subj.: Past) (Cum + Indic.: Pre, Fu)
Cum fulgor vīsus esset, multī timuērunt.
(When the lightning had been seen, many feared.)
(Dōnec, dum, quōad, antequam, priusquam)
DDQ hoc faciās, īnfēlīx erō.
(Until you do this, I shall be unhappy.)
Cs of Proviso
(+) (dum, modo, dummodo + Pre/ Im Subj.)
Hoc faciēmus DDM auxilium offerās.
(We shall do this provided that you offer help.)
Subj. by Attraction
(C: Subj.; sub-C: Subj. if integral to idea of main C)
Tam crūdēlis erat ut omnis populus dum vīveret eum timēret.
(He was so cruel that all the people while he lived feared him.)
Cs of Doubting
(+) (num/ an + Subj.), (-) (quīn + Subj.)
Dubitō num veniat.
I doubt whether [that) he is coming (he will come).
Cs of Prevention
(+) (quōminus/ nē)
(-) (quōminus/ quīn)
Hostēs cōpiās nostrās dēterruērunt (QN) advenīrent.
(The enemy prevented our troops from arriving.)
Subj. Cs w/ Impersonal Vs
(Expressed/ implied ut/ nē + Subj.)
Patriae interest ut hostēs discēdant.
(It is in the interest of the country that the enmy withdraw.)
"Mood of facts"
- Direct statements & Qs
- Pre, Imp, Fu, Per, Plu, Fu Per
(quamquam/ etsī (although) + (often w/) tamen)
Quamquam rūs incolimus, fēlīcēs nōn sumus.
(Although we live in the coutnry, we are not happy.)
(Also w/ cum, quamvīs, Abl. Ab.)
(Quoniam/ quandō (since), quod/ quia (because))
Quoniam sumus amīcī, amīcitiam nōn negābimus.
(Since we are friends, we shall not deny our friendship.)
(Also w/ cum, Abl. Ab.)
Cum parentēs vidēmus, fēlīcēs sumus.
(When we see our parents, we are happy.)
(Subj. (NOT Indic.) used if in the past)
Postquam amīcōs vīdērunt, fēlīcēs vōsī sunt.
(After they saw their friends, they seemed happy.)
(Also w/ Abl. Ab.)
(Ut, ubi, quandō, cum (When))
(__) tē rīdeō, mē ipsum rīdeō.
(When I laugh at you, I laugh at my very self.)
(Dum. dōnec (while, until), simul ac (atque) (as soon as), quōad (as long/ far as, until))
Simul ac eum vīdī, eum dīlēxī.
(As soon as I saw him, I liked him.)
(Antequam, prisquam (before))
Cum cūrā ante audī quam rīdēs.
(Listen carefully before you laugh.)
(Pre + Per) (Imp + Plu)
Cum parentēs vīderāmus, fēlīcēs erāmus.
(Whenever we saw our parents, we were happy.)
İn oppidō agitātum est.
(There was a disturbance in the town.)
(Also possible w/ Subj.)
Verbal Adj.; governs obj.
except when obj. = N Adj./ pron.
Linguā antīquā discendā ūtimur.
(We enjoy learning
an ancient language.)