LEARNING (2.CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (5.KEY FEATURES (2.stimulus…
1.discovered by Ivan Pavlov
focused on observable, measurable behavior(worked with salivating dogs)
learning to make an involuntary response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces it)
3.several key elements
must be present
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
: original, naturally occurring
stimulus that ordinarily leads to an involuntary response
unconditioned response (UCR)
: involuntary response
to the unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS)
: previously neutral stimulus that begins to cause the same kind of involuntary response when paired repeatedly with the UCS
.conditioned response (
CR): response that is given to the CS
4.basic principles for
1.TEMPORAL ARRANGEMENT OF CS-US
CS must come before the UCS,
CS and UCS must come very close together in time (< 5 sec)
1.SIMULTANEOUS CONDITIONING: CS N US BEGIN N END TOGETHER
2.DELAYED CONDITIONING: US PRESENTED AFTER CS,FOR A PERIOD BOTH OVERLAP, ALSO CALLED FORWARD CONDITIONING, IDEAL
3.TRACED CONDITIONING; FORWARD CONDITIONING, BUT NO OVERLAP, LITTLEGAP
4.BACKWARD CONDITIONING: US PRECEEDS CS, NO OVERLAP, NOT A REAL CONDITIONING PROCEDURE.
CS must be paired with the UCS many times
CS must be distinct from other competing stimuli
MORE FAMILIAR WITH CS, MORE DIFFICULT TO LEARN NEW THING OR MAY ELICIT ANTOGONOSTIC RESPONSE
response to a stimulus that is similar to the original CS, TRANSFER OF LEARNING, EG:SOUND OF AMBULANCE
response to different stimuli in different ways, SELECTIVE RESPONSE
FAILURE OF DISCRIMINATION MAY PRODUCE EXPERIMENTAL NEUROSIS
presentation of the CS in the absence of the UCS leads to reduction in the CR
reappearance of a previously extinguished CR
occurs when strong CS is paired with new neutral
stimulus; new previously neutral stimulus becomes a second CS
IN IT EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS THEMSELVES BECOMES THE CS, CONTEXTUAL STIMULI PROMINANCE, THIS TYPE OF CONDITIONING USUALLY OCCURS FOR THE FEAR RESPONSES.... CS(BELL) 70M DB IN LAB..... CR(RUN), SAME IN OUTSIDE THE LAB NO RESPONSE OF RUNNING.
1.STIMULUS SUBSTITUTION THEORY
1.PROPOSED BY PAVLOV
2.stimulus substitution occurs where the CS comes to activate
the same part of the brain that was originally activated by the UCS
3.original theory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together.
4.ACQUISITION-REWARD-BUILDS EXCITATORY TENDENCY, EXTINCTION-REMOVAL OF REWARD-INHIBITORY TENDENCY, EX > IN = RESPOND, IN > EX=STOP RESPOND
INFORMATION EXPECTATION THEORY
1.organism consciously expects something to occur; CS provides information about the coming of the UCS (based on work of Rescorla)
1.conditioned emotional responses
emotional responses that have become classically conditioned to occur in response to learned stimuli; based on work of John B. Watson; helps explain development of phobias
2.conditioned taste aversion
1.is one situation where classical conditioning
can occur quickly without repeated pairings
2.development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular
taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association.
1.tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning
1.can occur by simply watching someone else respond to a stimulus
1.TREATMENT OF ADDICTIONS
2.TO BRING ABOUT BEHAVIOR N ATTITUDE CHANGE
3.TO REPLACE MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOUR WITH THE MORE ADAPTIVE ONE.
CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR ALL CONDITIONING, ONLY FOR REFLEXIVE.
4.DIFFERENCES BN C.C N OC
1.ORGANISMS CONTROL OVER SITUATION
CC: ORGANISM HAS NO CONTROL OVER THE SITUATION
OC: ORGANISMS BEHAVIOR DETERMINES THE OUTCOME OF THE SITUATION.
2.TYPE OF RESPONSE
1.CC:LIMITED TO REFLEXES OR AUTOMATIC RESPONSES TO SPECIFIC STIMULI, Responses are involuntary and reflexive, elicited by a stimulus
OC:NOT LIMITED TO REFLEXES BUT INCLUDE AN ENTIRE ARRAY OF VOLUNTARY BEHAVIORS. Responses are voluntary, emitted by the organism
CC:End result is the creation of a new response to a stimulus that did response. not normally produce that response
OC:End result is an increase in the rate of an already occurring End result is the creation of a new response to a stimulus that did response
4.association FORMING FACTORS
OC:Consequences are important in forming an association,, Reinforcement should be immediate.
CC:Antecedent stimuli are important in forming an association,, CS must occur immediately before the UCS
CC:An expectancy develops for UCS to follow CS
UCS:An expectancy develops for reinforcement to follow An expectancy develops for UCS to follow CS.
a correct response
2.focused on observable, measurable behavior
1.BASIC ASSUMPTION: BEHAVIOR IS INFLUENCED BY ITS CONSEQUENCE. ORGANISM PRODUCES A CONSEQUENCE BY OPERATING ON ITS ENVIRONMENT.
3.(learning to make voluntary responses through the effects of positive or negative consequences
4.OPERANT BEHAVIOR OPERATES ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND IS MAINTAINED BY CONSEQUENCES
2.LAW OF EFFECT
1.THORNDIKE HUNGRY CATS PUZZLE BOX, was among the first to study learning of voluntary responses,,,, developed law of effect—action followed by pleasurable consequence will tend to be repeated; action followed by unpleasant consequence will tend not to be repeated
2.LEARNER--PERFORM AN ACTION--PRODUCE SOME CONSEQUENCE--REWARDED--REPEAT.... PUNISH--AVOIDED.
3.RESPONSE FOLLOWED BY SATISFACTORY CONSEQUENCE--STAMPED IN,,,,,,,,,,
RESPONSES NOT LEAD TO SATISFACTORY CONSEQUENCE--STAMPED OUT
1.led field of behaviorism after Watson
2.coined term operant conditioning—
voluntary behavior that people
and animals do to operate in the world
3.MAIN BASIS ARE REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT
4.A Typical Skinner Box
This rat is learning to press the bar in the wall of the cage in order to get food (delivered
a few pellets at a time in the food trough on lower left). In some cases, the light on the top left might be turned on to indicate that pressing the bar will lead to food or to warn of an impending shock delivered by the grate on the floor of the cage.
4.CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOUR
1.DEFN:any event or stimulus, that when following a response increases the probability that the response
will occur again
satisfy basic biological needs (e.g., hunger, thirst, touch)
gain reinforcing properties through previous association
with primary reinforcer
addition, or experiencing of, a pleasurable stimulus
EG:1.getting a gold star for good behavior in school
removal, escape, or avoidance of unpleasant stimulus
EG;1.Stopping at a red light to avoid getting in an accident,,
2.Mailing an income tax return by April 15 to avoid paying a penalty.
3.Obeying a parent before the parent reaches the count of “three” to avoid getting a scolding.
DEFN:any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice)
1.“relatively permanent” aspect of learning
refers to learning being associated
with physical changes in the brain
2.although physical changes may be
present we may not always be able
to “get” to the information