Social & Behavioral Socialization Outcomes
12-4 Morals & Morality
feelings: includes empathy and guilt
reasoning: includes the ability to understand rules, distinguish right from wrong, and take another person’s perspective
morals: encompass an individual’s evaluation of what is right and wrong
behaving: h includes prosocial and antisocial acts as well as self-regulation of impulses.
12-5 Moral Development
Yau and Smetana (2003) interviewed 61 Chinese preschoolers from Hong Kong at ages 2, 4, and 6 years about familiar moral, social-conventional, and personal events.
Lawrence Kohlberg (1976), influenced by Piaget’s work, developed a theory of moral development after 20 years of interviewing children, adolescents, and adults in different cultures
autonomous morality Piaget’s stage of moral development in which children realize that rules are arbitrary agreements that can be changed by those who have to follow them (internal)
preconventional level: Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning in which the individual considers and weighs the personal consequences of the behavior
heteronomous morality Piaget’s stage of moral development in which children think of rules as moral absolutes that cannot be changed (external)
conventional level: Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning in which the individual can look beyond personal consequences and consider others’ perspectives
Jean Piaget (1965) defined morality as “the understanding of and adherence to rules through one’s own volition.
ages 4 and 5), the rules were poorly understood and were not binding
6 to 9), rules were regarded as having been made by an authority (“morality of constraint”) and were therefore sacred and unchangeable
(ages 10 to 13), rules were regarded as law emanating from mutual consent (“morality of cooperation”); rules must be respected if you want to be loyal to the group, but rules can be changed if the majority of the group agrees.
postconventional level: Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning in which the individual considers and weighs the values behind various consequences from various points of view
justice moral perspective: emphasizes the rights of the individual; when individual rights conflict, equitable rules of justice must prevail
care moral perspective: views people in terms of their connectedness with others; others’ welfare is intrinsically connected to one’s own
12-6 Influences on Moral Development
Judith Smetana (1985, 1989, 2006) found that even 2½- to 3-year-olds distinguish between moral and conventional rule
Dien (1982), the Western system of morality (individualistic)—emphasizing individual autonomy and selfresponsibility—is rooted in Judeo-Christian theology (humans were created with freedom of self-determination) and Greek philosophy (morality is based on rationality)
Turiel (1983, 2002, 2006) explains that the inconsistencies exhibited in people’s moral reasoning are influenced by whether they judge the situation to be a “moral” or a “conventional,” or social, situation
a moral situation involves other people’s rights or welfare (you cannot hit other children)
a conventional situation involves rules for appropriate behavior in a social group (you must not interrupt when someone else is talking).
Understanding and anticipating others’ emotions is a major developmental achievement that allows people to successfully engage in social interactions with other
relationship between the individual and those involved in the problem, whether others are watching, previous experience in similar situations, and the value society places on various response
12-3 Prosocial Behavior: Altruim
ages 3 to 6 begin to become less egocentric and exhibit altruistic acts if they also benefit the self (“I’ll share so you’ll be my friend”).
School-agers ages 6 to 12, who can take the role of others, understand the legitimate needs of others (“I’ll help because he can’t do it himself”
s ages 2 to 3 exhibit some sharing and demonstrations of sympathy
age 13 and over, understand prosocial behavior in terms of more abstract social responsibility and may feel guilty for not acting altruistically when it is needed (“I should participate in the jog-a-thon to raise money for children with cancer”)
Radke-Yarrow and Zahn-Waxler (1986) observed consistent patterns of sharing, helping, and comforting behaviors among 3- to 7-year-olds at play.
Whether or not a child will behave prosocially may depend on the individuals involved, the specific situation, and how the child interprets it
altruism refers to behavior that is kind, considerate, generous, and helpful to other
is biologically influenced and it shows some consistency over time.
appear during the preschool year
Freud (1938), altruistic behavior is an indication of the ability to regulate biological drives
id: part of the personality that seeks self-gratification
ego: the rational part of the personality
superego: regulate their impulses and behave according to internalized parental standards
Hofman (1991, 2000), empathy—vicariously experiencing another’s emotions—is part of human nature in that it is an inherited biological predisposition.
there is an area in the front of the brain’s cerebral cortex, called the ventromedial area (located behind the bridge of the nose), that processes information regarding other people’s suffering and one’s own misdeeds
Apparently, the human brain is wired to cooperate and rewards itself for doing so with pleasurable feelings
as differential susceptibility to parental influence among children who had a certain genetic trait, called the dopamine receptor D4 7-repeat allele.
direct reinforcement (reward for an altruistic act
vicarious reinforcement (observing someone else engaging in the act and getting reinforced for it) encourages altruism
Dahlman, Ljunggvist, and Johanneson (2007) tested the existence of reciprocal behavior among children ages 3–8
to Wentzel and Brophy (2013), concrete, or extrinsic, rewards do not necessarily undermine intrinsic motivation if they are accompanied by explanations related to the situation.
Observing and imitating a model has been shown repeatedly to encourage observers to behave similarly.
e, Staub (1971) worked with pairs of kindergarten children, asking one child to act the part of someone who needed help (carrying something too heavy) and the other child to act the part of a helping person (to think of actions to help).
Staub (1970) explicitly assigned responsibility to kindergarten and first-grade children.
Greitemeyer and Osswald (2010) examined the hypothesis that playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video game increases helping behavior.
Lawrence Kohlberg (1976) believed prosocial behavior to be a component of moral reasoning, which is a function of cognitive development.
moralizing: “Look, you made Susie cry; it’s not nice to pull hair.”
prohibition with explanation or statement of principle: “You must never poke any one’s eyes! He won’t be able to see!”
withdrawal of love, physical or verbal: “I can’t hug you when you’ve been mean.”
neutral: “Russell is crying because you hurt him.”
prohibitions without explanation: “Don’t ever do that!”
12-7 Gender Roles and Sex Typing
gender role: to the qualities individuals understand to characterize males and females in their culture
12-2 Antisocial Behavior: Aggression
basic principle of learning theory is that actions are contingent on consequences— behavior that is reinforced (rewarded) will be repeated; behavior that is not reinforced (ignored or punished) will cease (but may be suppressed)
Bandura (1973, 1991), children learn through a series of reinforcing and non-reinforcing experiences when it is appropriate to act aggressively, what forms of aggression are permissible, and to whom they can express aggression without disapproval or punishment
experiment by Bandura (1973), children were exposed to one of three conditions: They viewed a film showing a successful aggressive model enjoying a victory; they viewed a film showing an aggressive model being severely punished by the intended victim; or they did not see any film (the control condition). The children who saw the aggressive model rewarded for aggressive behavior exhibited more aggression on subsequent observation than did children who either saw the model punished or saw no model.
Society for Neuroscience (2007), many people with pathological aggression go undiagnosed
no drugs for aggression have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and social programs are often underfunded or under pressure to serve all who need help
recent advances include:
identifying a host of specific genes and chemical reactions in the brain that are linked to violent behavior
discovering that dysfunctional regulation of the brain chemical serotonin, which affects mood, affects impulsiveness in human
responses that are not rewarded every time they occur, but only sometimes, are very difficult to “unlearn.
males are more aggressive than females, not only physically but also verbally
information processing the way an individual attends to, perceives, interprets, remembers, and acts on events or situation
a death instinct (Thanatos), which works toward the individual’s self-destruction
aggressive instinct can be redirected (crying, punching a doll, hammering nails), then it can be defused.
a life instinct (Eros), which causes the person to grow and survive
Impulsivity is one of the characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children diagnosed with ADHD are more prone to aggressive behavior than are normal children, but improve when they are on medication
Dodge (1986) assumes that children enter each social situation with a memory of past experiences and a goal (making friends, for example
causes of aggression fall into the following general categories: (1) biological; (2) social cognitive; (3) sociocultural; and (4) ecological
A study of children from first to sixth grade found the classroom context to be influential in increasing or reducing aggressive behavior
Researchers are interested in studying causes and correlates of aggressive behavior because childhood aggression, especially hostile aggression, often forecasts later maladaptive outcomes, such as delinquency and criminality
Stanley Milgram carried out in 1963, which focused on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience
Shteynberg, Gelfand, and Kim (2009), American students report they feel more offended when their rights are violated, whereas Korean students report they feel more offended when their sense of duty and obligation is threatened
Collectivists are more likely than individualists to avenge another’s shame. To collectivists, shame to someone is considered an injury to one’s self.
complex variables operating in aggressive behavior involve the
child (personality, cognitive level, social skills)
family (parenting, interaction)
school (attitudes on handling aggressive behavior)
peer group (modeling, norms, acceptance/rejection)
community (socioeconomic stressors, attitudes about what -
behavior, availability of support systems
Patterson and his colleagues (1989; Reid, Patterson, & Snyder, 2002) have synthesized the findings on aggression in the hypothesis that the route to chronic delinquency is marked by a reliable developmental sequence of ecological experiences
he socialization for aggression is bidirectional and interactional in several ecological contexts; it includes poor parenting skills, which affect child behavior, and child behavior, which affects not only parenting but school performance and peer relationships as well
risky developmental outcomes regarding children’s antisocial behavior
harsh parental discipline
lack of maternal warmth
exposure to aggressive adult models
maternal aggressive values
family life stressors
mother’s lack of social support
peer group instability
lack of cognitive stimulation.
Thus, it is not low SES or poverty per se that influence aggressive behavior, but the socialization mediators that often accompany such socioeconomic stress
12-8 Development of Gender Role
Psychoanalytic theory deals with how one comes to feel like a male or female (Freud)
Sandra Bem (1981), as well as by Martin and Halverson (1981, 1987), deals with how one comes to process information about oneself as a male or female by perceiving and interpreting gender-linked information
schema (plural schemata) is a conceptual framework of one’s experiences and understandings.
sex typing: classification into gender roles based on biological sex
12-1 Self-Regulation of Behavior
prosocial behavior any behavior that benefits other people, such as altruism, sharing, and cooperation
aggression unprovoked attack, fight, or quarrel
instrumental, whose goal is to obtain an object, a privilege, or a space
hostile, whose goal is to harm another person
antisocial behavior any behavior that harms other people, such as aggression, violence, and crime
altruism voluntary actions that are intended to help or benefit another person or group of people without the actor’s anticipation of external rewards
Emotional regulation includes the ability to control anger and exhibit empath
Damon (1990), this is the foundation of respect for authority and social order in society.
Temperament: consists of genetically based characteristics that determine an individual’s sensitivity to various experiences and responsiveness to patterns of social interaction
Self-regulatory behavior involves the ability to delay gratification, the ability to sustain attention to a task, and the ability to plan and self-monitor a goal-directed activity, whether social or moral conduct or academic or athletic achievement
self-regulation the ability to regulate or control one’s impulses, behavior, and/or emotions until an appropriate time, place, or object is available for expression
aim of socialization
can be observed in children beginning about age 2 and increasing with age
cognitive maturity to understand that they are separate, autonomous beings with the ability to control their own action
12-9 Socialization Influences on Gender-Role Development
at fathers are the more influential gender-role socialization agent
Janet Lever (1978) and Barrie Thorne (1993), found significant differences in the play of boys’ and girls’ peer groups.
Size of group. Is it large or small?
Role differentiation. Do the players have the same role, as in checkers, or different roles, as in baseball?
Player interdependence. Does one player’s move affect another’s, as in chess or tennis, or not, as in darts or hopscotch?
Explicitness of goals. Is playing merely a cooperative venture with no winners or end point, as in “playing house,” or is the purpose playing for a goal, such as scoring the most points, or until a certain end point is reached (nine innings, for example)?
Number and specificity of rules. Are there a few vague rules, as in tag, or many specific ones, as in baseball?
Team formation. Does the play require teams?
fathers being more stereotypical than mothers
microsystems of family, peer group, school, community, and media.
Sacred Responsibilities of Parenthood
different jobs but all equal
marriage is viewed as a couple, not an institution to raise children
efforts count if you don't give up
adversary attempting to replace w/ different lifestyles
Satan focuses on destroying family
Boys and Girls are Different
culture and biology work together
in the video, they only mention damages for girls, never damages for boys
That's Not My Job
mom is boos, dad is assistant
ease up and husbands would help more
back off of the others parenting
I Will Not Remove Mine Integrity From Me
Outdated or appropriate?
agreement more important?