basic units of language (5. Context: how everything in a language works…
basic units of language
the units of sound that distinguish one word from another. E.g. ki
. Indivisible units of sound.
In English they correspond to letters of the alphabet or sounds. About 45 phonemes in English
sequences of sound that produce the smallest unit of meaning in a language. The smallest linguistic unit withing a word that can carry meaning. Un/break/able.
exist on their own, can't be divided into smaller parts. E.g. cat, water.
carry most of the content of a senntece
grammatical role, little meaning of their own
must be attached to other morphemes. E.g prefixes and suffixes
create new words. change the meaning or part of speech of a word when they are used together.
E.g. sad -> sadness. adjective -> noun.
Action -> reaction. Change of meaning
-ise, -able, -ism, -ing, -ful, ist, -ive, -ly, -hood
dis-, un-, pre-, bi-, in-, co-
Changes existing words. Modify the tense of a verb or the number values or a noun.
walk -> walked
cat -> cats
I'm bored, I'm boring.
Not so bad: I
walking to school.
Nouns: s (plural), 's (possession)
Verbs: -ed (tense), [she] wants (person)
Adjectives and adverbs: -er (comparative), -est (superlative)
teapot, strarlight, careworn
Kinds of word formation
Not derivational. Word changes class without change of form.
The pet (n), to pet (v)
the set of all the inflected forms of a single word. Run. runs, ran running. Would all be under one entry in the dictionary.
the set of rules by which a person constructs full sentences
Smallest forms of a sentence:
Noun phrase: can be just a noun or pronoun
Verb phrase: can be a single verb
Word order is important in English.
The baby ate the carrot. The carrot ate the baby.
how everything in a language works together to convey a particular meaning
Tone of voice
words being used
Word classes (parts of speech)
Closed word classes:
relatively small no. of items, no new words can be normally added.
A, the, any, my, those, which
She, him, it, them, who, that, himself
In, across, at, by, near, within
And, but, if, or, while, unless
Open word classes:
Contain vast number of items, open to new words being introduced.