Week 1 Notes: Electrons to Carbon (Matter (-ATOMS = smallest known…
Week 1 Notes: Electrons to Carbon
-Natural forms of matter
→ Mountains, Oceans
-Unnatural forms of matter → Cars, Gasoline
-ALL forms of MATTER→ made of small particles
-ATOMS = smallest known particles of matter
= smallest known particles of matter
-Protons→ Nucleus-->positive charge
-Neutrons→ Nucleus → neutral charge (similar size to protons)
-Electrons → orbiting around nucleus → negative charge
Scientist: Niels Bohr
-From Denmark, liked soccer
-Won Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922
-Battled rival of Einstein (argued against the idea of an election being a particle and a wave)
Major contribution→ Visual representation of electron orbitals (Bohr Models)
→ the electrons in the last orbital of an atom
The number of valence electrons → important regarding how atoms interact and combine with one another
Bohr developed a visual representation of how electrons are arranged in an atom. While the electrons don’t necessarily move in a perfect circle, they do exist in different energy shells known as orbitals that can hold a certain amount of electrons. The number of electrons in the last orbital are known as valence electrons which are important regarding how reactive the atom is to other atoms. Some atoms have different amounts of neutrons from protons in their nucleus. They are known as isotopes.
Scientist: Gillbert Lewis
American born scientist that went to Harvard
Professor at MIT, UCal-Berkeley
Developed Lewis Dot Diagrams→ show valence electrons
Diagrams→ Atomic Symbol, dots, lines
How matters comes together: Valence electrons→ These electrons determine how atoms can stick to one another
Full Orbital Shell→ When the atom’s outermost shell is full (8, octet rule) then the atom tends to be less reactive to other atoms
2 Ways to fill shell→ Sharing or Transferring
Bonding: Concerns Valence Electrons
Ionic bonding is an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms.
-Lose an electron → Atom is Positive
-Gain an electron → Atom is Negative
*Positive Ion → Cation
Negative Ion → Anion
are formed as a result of the sharing of one or more pairs of bonding electrons. Each atom donates half of the electrons to be shared.
Carbon Structure helps its bonds:
6 Protons & Neutrons
2 electrons in inner shell
*4 electrons in outer shell (This shell is important because it can bond with atoms who can share and atoms that need electrons transferred.
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occurs only between 2 metal atoms. In this type of bond the valence electrons are free to move about the electron clouds of all metals participating in the bond.
It is similar to a “Sea of Electrons”.
There are shorthand ways to represent how atoms form covalent or ionic bonds.Lewis dot diagrams use dots arranged around the atomic symbol to represent the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom
Polar Molecule: *Because the oxygen has 8 protons versus the one in both hydrogen. This makes the molecule “polar” like a magnet creating a positive side (H atoms) and a negative side (O atom)
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Because of the
the attraction of the hydrogen atom with other polar molecules is known as
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Some atoms may have different amount of neutrons in their nucleus with their protons→ Isotopes
Protons + Neutrons = Atomic Mass → how you determine an isotope
All isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties → Due to always having the same electrons
Atoms vs. Elements:
-Atomic mass = protons & neutrons (small fraction of elections)
-Specific types of atoms → ELEMENTS (Hydrogen, Neon, etc)
*Hydrogen and Helium are used differently in balloons
Periodic table organizes atoms by atomic size which leads to more patterns in each atom’s characteristic (or personality)
Not always the first letter of the name but most of the time (Helium→ He but Potassium→ K)
Atomic Mass #
: Number of Protons (weight includes neutrons)
Same electrons in last orbital (vertical)
Same amount of electron orbitals (horizontal)
The things we’re able to interact with in the world through our senses exist in a complex concept of matter. All of this matter is made of various pieces with the smallest pieces being called atoms. The Periodic Table helps us distinguish different types of atoms known as elements which vary based on their atomic structure.