The Special Education Process (STEP 6: CREATION OF IEP (Parts of an…
The Special Education Process
STEP 1: RECOGNITION
Question: Is there a discrepancy in ability and age that signifies the need for support?
Ability includes: academic, social/emotional, behavioral, physical
("The Special Education Referral Process", n.d.)
Schedule a meeting with parents/guardians
3 Questions to consider:
Is the issue recurrent or new?
Is the issue constant?
Is the issue appropriate for children of this age?
Provide examples of the student's work and/or anecdotal classroom notes regarding the student's needs ("The Special Education Referral Process", n.d.)
An informal plan of action may exist at this point between the teacher and students.
Document this plan
Document the strategies and interventions used with the student
Continue to collect work samples and maintain data
STEP 2: PRE-REFERRAL or RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RTI)
Create a student-centered team with the following people involved:
other general education teachers
Essential components of RTI ("The Essential Components of RTI", n.d.)
Screening: Conducted to identify or predict students who may be at risk for poor learning outcomes.
Progress Monitoring: used to assess students’ academic performance, to quantify a student rate of improvement or responsiveness to instruction, and to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction
Data-based Decision Making: Occurs at all levels of RTI implementation and all levels of instruction
For more info on RTI and the variosu components click here
STEP 3: REFERRAL FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION EVALUATION
If interventions prove (with data) to be unsuccessful, school personnel OR parents may make a request for a special education evaluation
Consent of the parent is necessary for this evaluation.
STEP 4: SPECIAL EDUCATION EVALUATION
Provides student-centered team information to determine if a child has a disability as defined by IDEA ("IEP Process", n.d.)
Assessment includes measuring the following: cognition, academics and language skills, social/emotional findings, and developmental/medical findings
Includes: Student records, observations, work samples, state and district tests, psychometric tests, interviews
Must be completed within 60 days (depending on district) of the referral date ("The Special Education Referral Process", n.d.)
Examples of those involved in this process:
Educational Diagnostician or School Psychologist
Related Service Providers - physical therapist, occupational therapist, audiologist, orientation and mobility specialist
STEP 5: ELIGIBILITY (FAPE)
- "Under the law, the IEP team has the flexibility to determine if a child qualifies for services" ("The IEP Process", n.d.)
1) Must have one of the 14 disabilities as defined by IDEA
2) The impact of the disability must create a need for services.
Having a disability does NOT qualify a student as eligible for special education services. The disability's impact on the student must "negatively impact" the student's education ("The Special Education Referral Process", n.d.)
STEP 6: CREATION OF IEP
**IEP = LEGAL CONTRACT BETWEEN THE PARENTS AND THE SCHOOL DISTRICT
IEP - Describes the services to be provided by the school district
Parts of an IEP:
Student Profile (background info, strengths and weaknesses, performance on formal assessments, reasons for special education services
IEP Initiation and Duration Dates (goals which are monitored, reviewed, updated based on student progress) Duration is usually for the academic year.
Special Instructional Factors (assistive technologies) :iphone: :computer:
Transportation needs :oncoming_bus:
Statement of Opportunities for nonacademic and extracurricular activities with non-disabled peers
:soccer: :football: :swimmer::skin-tone-5:
Statement of frequency and method of reports and goal attainment for parents/guardians
Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) if necessary
Students 16+ - a plan for transition from high school
SAMPLE IEP MEETING
STEP 7: IEP IMPLEMENTATION
Responsibility of IEP team to make sure that the IEP is implemented
Goals and benchmarks provide objectives, but the IEP is a "living" document and may be modified
Least Restrictive Environment: A student must be placed in the least restrictive environment for their benefit - IEP team determines the amount of time each day the student spends receiving special services
1) Resource Services: not to exceed 50% of a student's day - modifications in class by regular teacher or pull out from class to work with specialists
2) Special Day Programs: may exceed 50% of day, taught by credentialed special education teacher
3)Severely Handicapped: 100% of school day on a designated site within the district
STEP 8: REEVALUATION
1) Evaluate the implementation of the current IEP
2) Develop the next annual IEP
Discuss positive and negative parts of the services provided to determine what should be considered for the next year
*If the IEP team determines that a child is no longer eligible for special education, appropriate documentation must support this ineligibility
Exceptional Children’s Assistance Center. (2011, October 28). Retrieved July 03, 2017, from
CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY
We are at Tier 2 in the Mult-Tiered System of Support in Step 2
IEP MUST MEET FOR TO EXAMINE THE FOLLOWING:
We are Tier 3 at this point in the Multi-Tiered System of Support
The Essential Components of RTI. (n.d.). Retrieved July 03, 2017, from
Special Education Referral Process. (n.d.). Retrieved July 03, 2017, from
Understanding the IEP Process. (n.d.). Retrieved July 03, 2017, from