AUS Year 6 Extreme Natural Events
AUS Year 6 Extreme Natural Events
Earthquakes and Tsunamis
What is an earthquake?
Where do earthquakes come from?
How often do they happen in Australia? In the world?
P-waves travel the fastest
S-waves travel the slowest
Waves in solid rock? Inconceivable!
4.2 Earthquake Hazards
Can be measured - leads into lesson 3.3
Formation of tsunamis
How do earthquakes create ocean waves?
Introduce tsunamis before leading on into lesson 3.4
Displacement of structures
Isolated base technology - collapse prevention mechanism
Roads, fences and train tracks offset
Case study: 1989 Newcastle earthquake
4.3 Measuring Earthquakes
The Richter scale
What is magnitude?
How is ground shaking measured?
How does it relate to Richter magnitude?
What do earthquake signals look like?
Case study: Boxing Day 2004 Sumatra earthquake
Why are they so devastating?
Early warning systems
2.1 Weather in the Outback
Why is Australia so dry?
What is a drought period?
Why is water so important?
2.2 Effects of Drought
Livestock die of heatstroke/thirst
Crops die from lack of water
Geography Alive 7 - Chapters 1 to 3
MORE DEATH :'( :'(
Loss of crops leads to lack of food in affected areas
Prolonged lack of water can cause ecosystem collapse
Lack of water in soil makes it more susceptible to erosion - coastal destruction
Water cycle disrupted?
2.3 Coping with Drought
How can water be rationed?
State government plans
Extra for Experts: Native animal and plant adaptations to drought?
(lungfish, mouse-ear cress)
Cyclones and Floods
3.1 Tropical Cyclones
What is a cyclone?
Equivalent of 'hurricane' in the US
How do cyclones form?
KEEP IT BASIC
Where do cyclones occur?
Defined as within tropical Southern Hemisphere
Form over the ocean but can move inland
3.2 Effects of Cyclones
Flooding of islands and coastal cities
Leads on into lesson 2.3
Heavy ocean swell underneath cyclone
How to shield from them?
Cyclones classified based on wind speed
Case study: 2016 Cyclone Winston
Flattened half of Fiji
Houses battered and demolished
Many deaths due to flying debris :(
3.3 Coping with Flooding
Flood prevention schemes
Cleaning up after a flood
Case study: 2015 Cyclone Lam
'Tent city' established on Elcho Island
Drinking water had to be boiled beforehand
Volunteers flown from Alice Springs to help emergency workers
Money provided by NT government and by crowdfunding
1.1 Earth's Layers
Earth is a planet. We live on it.
Cold outer skin where earthquakes happen
Source of magma that fuels volcanoes
Hot and metallic
Different parts of the Earth have different properties and affect life on the surface in different ways.
1.2 The Atmosphere
What is weather?
What controls weather?
Energy from the Sun
How does weather change the Earth's surface?
1.3 The Geosphere
What is the crust made of?
What are rocks?
Emphasise fact that Earth's surface changes due to movement of the crust and mantle. Don't go into plate tectonics or mantle convection, just say "they move."
What is a volcano?
Why do they erupt?
Compare cold crust and hot mantle
Mantle source of magma
Difference between magma and lava
Famous volcanic eruptions
Mount St. Helens
5.2 Volcanic Hazards
2010 Iceland eruption affected air traffic in Northern Hemisphere.
79 AD eruption of Vesuvius blanketed Pompeii in ash, preserving its inhabitants.
How to cope with them?
Kilauea produces constant lava flows that gradually add to Hawai'i island area.
Slow and easy to avoid.
Lateral blast from Mt. St. Helens produced a huge pyroclastic flow that decimated US forest.
Very fast and extremely dangerous. Luckily they never happen in Australia!