AUS Year 6 Extreme Natural Events ( Earthquakes and Tsunamis (4.1…
AUS Year 6 Extreme Natural Events
1.3 The Geosphere
Emphasise fact that Earth's surface changes due to movement of the crust and mantle. Don't go into plate tectonics or mantle convection, just say "they move."
What are rocks?
What is the crust made of?
1.2 The Atmosphere
How does weather change the Earth's surface?
What controls weather?
Energy from the Sun
What is weather?
1.1 Earth's Layers
Different parts of the Earth have different properties and affect life on the surface in different ways.
Hot and metallic
Source of magma that fuels volcanoes
Cold outer skin where earthquakes happen
Earth is a planet. We live on it.
Earthquakes and Tsunamis
Early warning systems
Why are they so devastating?
Case study: Boxing Day 2004 Sumatra earthquake
4.3 Measuring Earthquakes
What do earthquake signals look like?
How does it relate to Richter magnitude?
How is ground shaking measured?
The Richter scale
What is magnitude?
4.2 Earthquake Hazards
Displacement of structures
Roads, fences and train tracks offset
Case study: 1989 Newcastle earthquake
Isolated base technology - collapse prevention mechanism
Formation of tsunamis
Introduce tsunamis before leading on into lesson 3.4
How do earthquakes create ocean waves?
Can be measured - leads into lesson 3.3
Waves in solid rock? Inconceivable!
S-waves travel the slowest
P-waves travel the fastest
How often do they happen in Australia? In the world?
Where do earthquakes come from?
What is an earthquake?
5.2 Volcanic Hazards
Very fast and extremely dangerous. Luckily they never happen in Australia!
Lateral blast from Mt. St. Helens produced a huge pyroclastic flow that decimated US forest.
Slow and easy to avoid.
Kilauea produces constant lava flows that gradually add to Hawai'i island area.
How to cope with them?
79 AD eruption of Vesuvius blanketed Pompeii in ash, preserving its inhabitants.
2010 Iceland eruption affected air traffic in Northern Hemisphere.
Famous volcanic eruptions
Mount St. Helens
Difference between magma and lava
Why do they erupt?
Mantle source of magma
Compare cold crust and hot mantle
What is a volcano?
Cyclones and Floods
3.3 Coping with Flooding
Case study: 2015 Cyclone Lam
Money provided by NT government and by crowdfunding
Volunteers flown from Alice Springs to help emergency workers
Drinking water had to be boiled beforehand
'Tent city' established on Elcho Island
Cleaning up after a flood
Flood prevention schemes
3.2 Effects of Cyclones
Case study: 2016 Cyclone Winston
Many deaths due to flying debris :(
Houses battered and demolished
Flattened half of Fiji
Cyclones classified based on wind speed
How to shield from them?
Flooding of islands and coastal cities
Heavy ocean swell underneath cyclone
Leads on into lesson 2.3
3.1 Tropical Cyclones
Where do cyclones occur?
Form over the ocean but can move inland
Defined as within tropical Southern Hemisphere
How do cyclones form?
KEEP IT BASIC
What is a cyclone?
Equivalent of 'hurricane' in the US
2.3 Coping with Drought
Extra for Experts: Native animal and plant adaptations to drought?
(lungfish, mouse-ear cress)
State government plans
How can water be rationed?
2.2 Effects of Drought
Water cycle disrupted?
Lack of water in soil makes it more susceptible to erosion - coastal destruction
MORE DEATH :'( :'(
Prolonged lack of water can cause ecosystem collapse
Loss of crops leads to lack of food in affected areas
Geography Alive 7 - Chapters 1 to 3
Crops die from lack of water
Livestock die of heatstroke/thirst
2.1 Weather in the Outback
Why is water so important?
What is a drought period?
Why is Australia so dry?