Emotional and Cognitive Socialization Outcomes (Influence on Attitude…
Emotional and Cognitive Socialization Outcomes
the process of discovering what is personally worthwhile or desirable in life.
Development of Attitudes
Awareness of cultural differences, beginning about age 2 1/2 -3
orientation toward specific culturally related words and concepts, beginning about age 4
Attitudes toward various cultural groups, beginning about age 7
Motives and Attributions
Within-person (intrinsic): changes result from cognitive or emotional maturation, such as becoming more curious as one is able to learn more and become more competent.
Socially mediated (extrinsic): changes result from contexts children experience as they grow; such as family, school, or peer group, and with feelings of control.
Influence on Attitude Development
Reinforcement and Punishment
Locus of Control
Internal Locus of Control: perception that one is responsible for one's own fate
External Locus of control: perception that others or outside forces are responsible for one's fate
Learned Helpless Orientation
The perception, acquired through negative experiences, that effort has no affect on outcomes.
Self-efficacy: the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.
Personal Agency: the realization that one's actions cause outcomes.
Development of Self-Esteem
Significance: the way one perceives she is loved and cared about by significant others
Competence: the way one performs tasks one considers important.
Virtue: how well one attains moral and ethical standards.
Power: the extent to which one has control or influence over one's life and that of others.
Influences on Self-Esteem
Warm (accepting and affectionate