How self-efficacy of mathematics relates to use of manipulative in the…
How self-efficacy of mathematics relates to use of manipulative in the classroom.
Past experiences with math
Bad past expirence= low self efficacy
Relevance: "In my own schooling I remember thinking when will I ever use this"
Higher Self efficacy: Positive experiences in the past. Good at math is school, struggled with math and had to focus on it more.
Both discuss productive struggle as a motivator
Influences upon perception of math teaching effectiveness
Confident in the ability to be effective in teaching math
Low self-efficacy: It will take more time and effort to be an effective math teacher
High Self efficacy: Can be an effective teacher because of comfort levels with math
Mathematics Instructional Strategies
Unanimous most important strategy for motivation : authentic math activities
Low self efficacy teachers: Relevance to the real world
High Self efficacy teachers: Usefulness, relating it to students interests
Low self-efficacy teachers: Teachers who did not use them when they were in school do not feel comfortable using them in their classrooms.
If they do not feel comfortable using manipulatives they probably do not deem them important.
High self efficacy pre-service teachers said they embrace manipulii and will use them in their classrooms to create an authentic learning experience.
What motivates pre-service teachers to do mathematics in math content courses
Working in groups
change in self-efficacy and math self-concept
The role of the teacher in the classroom
Teachers communicated that the manipulatives were fun, but not necessary, for teaching and learning mathematics.
Efficacy of teaching math with concrete manipulatives
Factors that strengthen the effect of manipulatives
development status of the learner moderate the efficacy of manipulatives
level of guidance offered to students during the learning process
perceptual richness of an object
Perceptual richness is important in conceptual learningt
Simply incorporating manipulatives is not enough to increase student achievement. The teacher needs to think about how the manipulatives will increase the conceptual learning
Incorporating manipulatives as a diversion does not make them effective
How are they used
Teachers use manipulative's in order to create a diversion in the classrooms where teachers were not able to represent mathematics concepts themselves.
Correlation of learning and concrete manipulatives
Perceptually rich manipuatives: made the most errors but the errors were conceptual
control conditions with no manipulatives showed the least amount of errors.