seminal research for struggling readers
seminal research for struggling readers
Learned, 2016 - 'The behavior kids': Examining the conflation of youth reading difficulty and behavior problem positioning among school institutional contexts
school discipline tended to position students as deficient readers and deviant youth even if they were skilled and engaged readers
policies, mandated curricula, school discipline, etc help shape how teachers and students engage in the classroom
calls for more research to "explicate how teachers and struggling readers simultaneously participate in institutional and classroom contexts and how these contexts mediate youths' literacy learning" p 1272
findings: student success and seeing them as valued members of school communities requires "disrupting the tacit conflation of reading difficulty and behavior problems among secondary school contexts" - 1272
literacy is socially situated (Street, 1984)
When people associate with each other, such as students with students or students with teachers, they "build and rebuild contexts" so these are always being constructed (Erickson & Schultz, 1997)
uses ANT (Latour, 1987) actor network theory - actors use tools and objects (as well as people) to make meaning -- trace the chains of associations --- micro to macro or local to societal
ANT - actors make everything, even their own theories and contexts; therefore, school institutional contexts aren't "out there" but "manifest in moment -to-moment interactions among teachers, administrators, and youths" (p. 1273)
also draws on Foucault's (1972) idea that power" flows unpredictably through social networks"; teachers and administrators can use power to advantage
critical of group tracking because it is unfair to African American and Latino youth; system wide policies such as this can contribute to the problem versus making it better
struggling secondary readers are often subject to processes of tracking, school discipline, and literacy intervention
Reading tests for purposes of district, state and federal accountability positioned students as both struggling readers and behavior problems rather than supporting literacy. Those who interacted with the data associated behavior problems with reading difficulty and the passing along of data from teachers and administrators to the literacy coach often classified kids as "quiet" or "squeaky wheel" bad readers (p. 1284)
Screening process for literacy intervention "not an exact science" which means some kids got it who didn't really need it and others who needed it didn't get it
inequitable funding: though 39% of one school compared to 62% of another in proficiency, they both got the same funding for literacy; This is both institutional (district) and local (school) as the available funding qualified a youth for literacy intervention at one school but not in another
Students and parents were not notified regarding the placement in literacy intervention classes and therefore were frustrated as they had no autonomy about the decision; once school year started, students couldn't unenroll
Students defined themselves negatively for being in the class (such as Learned's other article title) because of the identification as a struggling reader. However, many shunned the labels and persisted to learn.
The process also positioned teachers in negative ways as they were faced with disgruntled readers.
One student in the case study made As in the reading program but did not do well in other classes (1.43 GPA) as "read 180 was neither identifying nor addressing Mark's disciplinary literacy needs as they related to his content area coursework" (1288)
Culture of Compliance: Subtle messages throughout school (daily announcements, hallway signs, etc.) positioned youth toward irresponsibility and disrespectfulness and constructed a focus (from administration and teachers) on rule adherence. The message is that following rules is most important and insinuates that youth will not do it on their own without constantly being told and reminded.
Correlation of disadvantage and suspensions: Economically disadvantaged students were 49% of the districts opulation but received 85% of suspensions; African Americans were 19% but received 60% of suspensions
Students in the study showed improvement at some point in the study , but overall, their needs were not met.
"Analysis showed that reading and behavior problems did not reside in the youths themselves but rather in the interactions among many school actors with the institutional contexts of schooling. Findings suggest that disrupting secondary school arrangements through which struggling readers are positioned is necessary if teachers together with youths, are to build on young people's demonstrated literacy strengths and resources." (1302)
further study: think critically about the role and design of reading assessments
Hall, 2010 - The negative consequences of becoming a good reader: identity theory as a lens for understanding struggling readers, teachers, and reading instruction
Theories of identity: models of identity, identity capital, discursive idenity
Why do students struggle based on decisions they make? (What Jen calls "intentional non-learners"
"I might fail, but you can't say I didn't learn something" p. 1815
Teachers need to be aware of their own discursive identities of students and how they respond to them.
What poor readers CAN do
Students bring it on themselves, but is it their fault?
Enriquez, 2011 - Embodying exclusion: The daily melancholia and performative politics of struggling early adolescent readers
sociocultural study; different from the typical cognitive study of reading
struggling reader identity -"which often labels and positions student through deficit lenses rather than recognizes and build up on the strengths of multiple ways students make meaning of printed text"
struggling reader identity is "felt, lived and embodied as part of students' daily interactions in schools"; AND "reading identities are the accumulation of beliefs, characterizations and official documentation of what students can and are willing to do while reading printed texts. To this end, personal, social and institutional values combine through discursive norms to produce one's official reading identity in school"
Many researchers believe that struggling reader identities are not really constructed on what students can do but on how well they follow school norms for social behavior" (Alvermann, 2001)
Enriquez combines sociology-cultural views of literacy with performance theories of education in order to put a different spin on understanding the contexts of how 'struggling readers' traverse reading in everyday activities
uses Butler's (1990, 1999) idea of melancholia - the idea of labeling someone as a struggling reader (Butler studied the black population) indicates more what they are not than what they can do. This identity becomes the self-perception and becomes deeply part of it. The feeling/identity can't be overcome and becomes what feels more like a condition than a mere label.
case study methodology
There is a sense of loss when one doesn't fit in and that causes another issue: Many refuse to "mourn" that loss because doing so forces one to admit being outside the bounds of what is considered normal and acceptable
Ivey & Johnston, 2015 - Engaged reading as a collaborative transformative practice
shift in focus toward student engagement: teachers abandoned assigned readings for student-selected, self-paced reading
over 4 years the shift consistently resulted in increased reading volume, fewer students filing the state test, and changes in peer relationships, self-regulation, and conceptions of self
CHAT - Cultural Historical Activity Theory
Reading engagement is usually studied as individual cognitive events, but Ivey and Johnston looked at it a social systems in which "individuals and communities reciprocally influence one another over time and across the breadth of human development" (298)
Research goal: to give a richer understanding of engaged reading, and of "reconciling the view of human development as being a profoundly social process with the view that individual subjectivity and agency make the very process of human development and social life possible" (Stetsenko, 2005, p. 71, found on p. 299 of Ivey and Johnston)
Klauda & Guthrie, 2014 - Comparing relations of motivation, engagement, and achievement among struggling and advanced adolescent readers
Ivey & Johnston, 2013 - Engagement with young adult literature: Outcomes and processes
Alvermann, 2007 - Telling themselves who they are: What one of -of-school time study revealed about underachieving readers
Guthrie& Klauda, 2014- Effects of classroom practices on reading comprehension, engagement, and motivations for adolescents
Learned,2016 - “Feeling like I'm slow because I'm in this class”: Secondary school contexts and the identification and construction of struggling readers
McKenna, Conradi, Lawrence, Jang, & Meyer, 2012- Reading attitudes of
middle school students: Results of a U.S. survey