identify and discuss the different approaches to leadership
Failed to find any traits that would explain or predict leader behaviour;
Overlooked the needs of followers;
Failed to clarify the relative importance of traits; and
Did not separate cause and effect—are leaders self-confident or does leadership breed self‑confidence?
This approach only predicts a fraction of what makes a successful leader
Over-simplifying the variety of leadership approaches in its ‘two styles only’ categorisation
Lacking predictive value for failing to accurately forecast the relationship between a particular behavioural style and organisational performance
One particular style of leadership cannot be guaranteed to produce improved group performance across different types of organisations
Directing an authoritarian style where specific instructions and close supervision occurs
Coachingwhile specific instructions and supervision are still provided, there are also clear explanations of what is occurring, and suggestions offered by employees may be accepted.
Supportingemployee efforts are facilitated and employees share decision-making responsibility
Delegatingresponsibility for both decision-making and problem-solving is transferred to employees.
Risk-takersMatch well with the start-up and growth phases, but may not be appropriate during maturity
CaretakersHelp an organisation move from the growth phase into the maturity phase
SurgeonsTo ensure future success or to fight against current problem, they have an ability to prune parts of the organisation which have become a hindrance (creative destruction)
UndertakersWhen an organisation has approached the end of its life, it is time to harvest or salvage what is viable and shut down the rest (to prevent prolonging losses)