Selection Policies In Education (1988 Education Act (Selection by…
Selection Policies In Education
1944 Education Act
Technical schools provided a more vocational education – only about 5% of schools were technicals and they eventually faded out.
Grammar schools provided an academic education – all students would be entered for the new ‘O’ levels at age 15. 15 -20% of pupils attended grammar schools.
Secondary Moderns provided a more basic education, and pupils were not expected to sit exams. 80% of pupils attended these schools.
– Pupil’s ‘intelligence level’ was not fixed at 11, ‘late developers’ missed out on the opportunity to get into a grammar school and sit exams.
Those who attended secondary moderns were effectively labelled as failures.
The system led to the reproduction of class inequality – typically middle class students passed the 11+ and went to grammar schools, got qualifications and higher paid jobs, and vice-versa for the working classes.
In 1965 the 11+ and the three types of school above were abolished, and so selection by ability at the age of 11 was effectively abolished too
grammar schools and secondary moderns were replaced by ‘comprehensive schools” – which means there is ‘one of type’ of school for all pupils
these schools are not allowed to select by ability – they are forbidden from doing so by ‘The Schools Admissions Code’
1988 Education Act
Selection by Catchment Area – the closer a student lives to the school, the more likely they are to get into the school.
The 1988 Education Act introduced open enrolment – in which parents are allowed to apply for a place in any school in any area.
Sibling Policies – those with brother’s and sisters who already attend the school are more likely to get a place
Selection by Faith – this only applies to faith schools – faith schools may select a proportion (but not all) of their pupils on the basis of religious belief and the commitment of their parents (how often they attend church for example).
Selection By Aptitude – where pupils are selected on the basis of their ‘aptitude’ in certain subjects. Most schools today are ‘Specialist schools’ – which means they ‘specialise’ in a certain subject and are allowed to select up to 10% of their pupils on the basis of their aptitude in a certain subject.
results in selection by mortgage – the house prices near to the best schools increase, and so over the years, only wealthier parents can afford to move into the catchment areas of the best schools.
‘covert selection’ to describe the process whereby schools try to discourage parents from lower socio-economic backgrounds from applying
by doing such things as making school literature difficult to understand, having lengthy application forms, not publicising the school in poorer neighbourhoods
The end result of this is that middle class parents are more likely to apply for the best schools
The Pupil Premium 2010
One recent policy change which encourages schools to select disadvantaged pulses on the basis of low household income is the Pupil Premium – schools selecting these pupils get an extra £600 per year per student.