relief is still important
flat land next to rivers increases next to the river, which is more of an issue now due to rising water levels
In LIC's shanty towns develop on unsafe and steep land
the spatial structure and organisation of a city
can be affected by physical factors (mountains, rivers and the relief of the land)
previously urban areas were located near rivers as they were required for transport, whereas nowadays building on a floodplain causes a flood risk
flat land is vital to the building and transporting of goods
a self contained city which has emerged at the edge of another city and is a city in its own right, subverts the structure of the Burgess model
they developed due to a higher car ownership and the development of arterial roads. In the 60's and 70's American businesses moved to the suburbs because of the cheaper land and this encouraged the urbanisation of these areas.
E.g. Wolverhampton: producers of military cars, bicycle industry and 200 bicycle producing companies. An economy based on engineering, built on the outskirts of Birmingham which became a city in the year 2000 in the west mids and has a population of 250,000
landscapes designed around security, surveillance, protection and exclusion, e.g. gated communities
monitored by security 24/7, gated communities arise in areas of high crime and rich areas.
the gated communities act as a deterrent and not a direct method of stopping crime.
Town Centre Mixed Development
the development of multiple services in one area, e.g. bars, restaurants, shopping districts and businesses eg Brindley Place
large schemes in order to achieve the most mixed development. location is vital to appeal to consumers.
they make them successful by preserving investment, servicing them regularly, orientation of the environment around them, size of the unit, car parking, management of skills.
Brindley Place - large canal side development, developed by Argent PLC group in 1993 onwards, sea life centre, crescent theatre, bars, restaurants, shops, walking distance of train and bus stations.
Spatial patterns of land use
Peak land value intersect & distance decay theory
PLVI: Peak Land Value Intersection, e.g. Rodeo Drive, Beverly Hills, 5th Avenue and Madison Avenue in Manhattan
the biggest factor affecting land use in HIC's is the value of the land, which is traditionally higher in the city, the PLVI is the point at which the land value is the highest
The Bid Rent Theory
Price of land increases the closer to the CBD you get. Shops and offices can afford high land values of the CBD. Industry cannot afford the highest land values so is found away from the CBD. Housing can only afford low land values.