Ecology of the Peer Group (Socializing Agent (Peer Groups: satisfy needs…
Ecology of the Peer Group
Peer Groups: satisfy needs of belonging, often preferred to other socializing agents, and they influence not only social development, but cognitive and psychological development.
Developing morals occurs in social settings- ability to articulate judgements about hypothetical dilemmas.
Cognitive Conceit: Elkind's term for children in Piaget's stage who put too much faith in their reasoning ability and cleverness.
Learning Appropriate Sociocultural Roles: Independence vs. Interdependence, autonomy, empathy, direct and indirect mannerisms, cooperation, etc.
Behavior informed by an understanding of others feelings and intentions, the ability to respond appropriately, and knowledge of the consequences of one's actions.
Children are more susceptible to the influence of peers in middle childhood and become less conforming in adolescence.
Getting Along with Others
This involves recognition of the rights of others, being able to seeing things from another's perspective, and being able to empathize.
The belief that others are as concerned with one's behavior and appearance as one is oneself.
Identity vs. Identity Role Confusion
Who am I and what is my role in life?
Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. inferiority
Peer Group socialization mechanisms
(Using reinforcement as a behavior modification technique requires waiting for the behavior to appear and then reinforcing it.
(Observing a child behave in a certain manner can affect another's consequent behavior in 3 ways: learning something new, learning consequences of behavior, and learning how to behave in new or unfamiliar situations.
(victims vs. bullies),
(The expert helps the Novice.
Belonging Needs & Social Interaction
secure and insecure attachment, affects of authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved parenting, parental influence on the choice of peers, and developing a sense of self.
Trust vs. Mistrust: Do I generally trust or distrust?
Children learn to compete for status in the peer group by compliance with group norms (followership), and creation of group norms (leadership) at appropriate times.
ages 2-7: Preoperational, 7-11: Concrete operational, 11+ Formal Operational.
Social conformity becomes more ambiguous when children are in situations of unsurety concerning what they should do or are supposed to do.
Students are more likely to conform to situations that they didn't feel bad about. This is shows that personal values affect one's likelihood of conforming to the peer group.
Reality Testing: Testing assumptions against facts.
Assumptive Reality: reality that is assumed to be true without evaluating contradictory data.
Morality of constraint & Morality of Cooperation
Morality of constraint is behavior based on respect for persons in authority, and morality of cooperation is behavior based on mutual understanding between equals.