Civil Rights Movement (1954-1960)
Civil Rights Movement (1954-1960)
Brown vs Topeka (1954)
Linda Brown wanted to go to her local school as her Jim crow school was miles away.
Outcome= segregation in schools became illegal
It was taken to supreme court
NAACP lawyer who fought the 18 month case
argument = segregation caused low self esteem/ physiologically harmful
verdict was announced on 17th of May 1954
successes: black children would get better education, 300,000 black children attended white schools, first law against segregation, gave hope.
Limits: Ku Klux Klan remerged and parents joined white citizens council, no date for the integration to be completed by, southern states past 450 laws against the decision, riots from white community.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
secretary for NAACP
She did not give up her seat for a white man on the bus
Lasted 382 days (1st of December 1954 - 20th of December 1955
MLK was in charge
outcome: segregation on buses became illegal
non violent/ peaceful protest
20,000 took part on the first day
On 13th of November the supreme court upheld the federal courts law and illegalized segregation on transport
Martin Luther King
Christian civil rights organization
southern Christian leadership conference
promoted non violent protest
he was popular in both the white and black communities
delivered 5,000 speeches across the US
set up MIA (Montgomery Improvement association0
Civil Rights Act 1957
established Civil rights division in the justice department
federal officials which could prosecute anyone who tried to deny another person their right to vote.
a civil rights commission to investigate voter infringement
it was not hugely successful
Southern politicians who belonged to the democrat party but were against civil rights
received 1 million votes when stood for presidential election in 1948.
Senator Thurmond did longest every filibuster (24hrs 18mins)
The southern manifesto was signed in 1956 by 19 senators and 77 representatives and stated that states should not implement the Brown vs Topeka desicion
Position of Black Americans in the south
Jim Crow laws
The state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the South of the USA.
Created after the reconstruction period.
Laws continued until 1965.
how it effected public life: separate schools, separate parks, separate pool games, separate water leisure (bathing, fishing, boating), separate barbers, separate books.
how it effected their private life: no interracial marriages, separate burial sites, alcohol cannot be sold with two races in the room, food cannot be served with two races in the same room, separate places for convicts, separate telephone booths.
when a group of people kill someone for an alleged offence without a legal trial (hanging or burning alive)
came from Virginia in 1920 (revolutionary war years)
3,446 black lynchings
contained questions impossible to answer
This lead to very few black people being able to vote
first black American to attend Mississippi university
a riot occurred and 160 marshals were wounded and 2 bystanders killed.
400 federal marshals were sent by Robert Kennedy to protect James.
Was born in Chicago but had family in Mississippi
His crime was saying 'bye baby' to a shopkeepers wife and saying that he had a white girlfriend
He was abducted by the woman's white husband and brother in law and was tortured to death then thrown into a river in 1955
the men were never charged
white citizens council
A middle class white organization that fought against civil rights
mostly full of parents
had 250,000 members by 1956
a white organization founded in 1866 that used murder, lynching and arson to prevent the granting of civil rights
impact of WW2
= national association for the advancement of colored people.
founded 1909 by W.E.B du Bois
in 1945 had 450,000 members
worked for political, economical and educational equality of rights for black people.
= congress of racial equality
founded in 1942 by James Farmer
inspired Gandhi's peaceful protests and rose awareness
freedom rides, sit ins
Little Rock (3rd of September 1957)
success: 9 black students were allowed to enroll in Little Rock school in Arkansas, Eisenhower sent 1000 federal troops, southern racial hatred was publicized, made USA appear to be an oppressive nation, states can be overruled by federal governement
Limits: Orval Faubus prevented children from entering with national guard, left children against white mob, BA could not rely on federal courts to get change, Faubus closed all schools in Arkansas for 1 year