Standards and Curriculum Development (Federal and State Government (The…
Standards and Curriculum Development
(Parkay et. al., 2014, p. 44)
Family Stress: Family used to be the fundamental component of a healthy society with its closely knit feature. However, we notice cases now where family members spread on a large geographical areas (p.47). The roles of mother and fathers are changing. We also see students who lack of benefit of a natural mother or father. That puts a significant stress on families, which affects the society, as well. The services of CPS are becoming more vital.
Changing Values and Morality: According to some educators curricula should include experiences in the process of valuing and values clarification (p.46). One way to do this is character education and it is already has been included in curricula across the country. This point is crucial, because they develop skills to live a life in accordance with equity, justice, caring and empathy.
Global Interdependence: The relations among countries are changing. More cooperation and interaction are observed in every level (p.51). Thus, the curricula must emphasize global connectedness, views and values of others and determination to cooperate to solve the global problems including others, too.
Environment: People are able to control and use nature for their safety, comfort as well as convenience (p.46). However, we have reached to point of no return in polluting the nature according to some scientists. Thus, the curricula should bring an awareness into the classroom of the nature around us, so that continuum of mankind on the planet will be possible.
Racial & Ethnic differences: Increasing diversity in the US
schools is reflected in public schools.(p. 45) Differences in students' backgrounds bring enhancement into education, and also challenges. For example the demand for bilingual programs have increased (p.46). Thus the curricula need to address the needs and background of all students to realize the equity in education.
"Trends in Contemporary Society"
(Parkay et. al., 2014, p. 313)
Role of Scholars (p. 314)
Scholars can influence "what is taught" and also "how" the curriculum should be implemented. Scholars also determine the values and patterns associated with society.
Role of Parents and Citizens (p. 314)
The public plays a crucial role in the attitudes, values, and perception regarding curriculum implementation. The community should have a say in the curriculum development and the focus for each instructional period.
Role of Students (p. 315)
Students perception and reaction to the curriculum is important. Students should share in the planning process.
Role of Educators (p. 315)
Educators and curriculum planners offer structure for planning and recommendations based on many sources. Educators must take account social factors and speak firmly about their beliefs and perceptions. Educators help many members of society work together.
Access to Technology
- Another special force is access to technology. The types of tools available to students that have technology shape the way curriculum is shaped.
Agencies that design Standardized tests-
Testing is a special force in Curriculum because so much money from the government is tied to how well a school does on standardized testing. Teachers will use curriculum that says will help students do better on the test.
- Thought to be a guide for teachers but the publishers do not have the best interest in mind. They put keywords that align to whatever Educational Philosophy is in style that year. They shape curriculum but might not be research based.
Federal and State Government (The Big Force)
21st century skills are a powerful force in developing curriculum. The “rainbow” (figure 5.2) above the standards, instruction, and curriculum must be integrated to create digital and global citizens. These skills include 4C’s, life and career skills, and technology skills. (p. 307)
These are a strong force in guiding curriculum because the content articulates the knowledge and skills a student should develop in all areas of academia. Much like the Backward Design, content standards require the curriculum planner to think about “what students should know and be able to do.” (p.306) These standards are divided into benchmarks or indicators, also helping to guide curriculum planning. (p.305-306)
This guides the level of achievement or proficiency reached in the content areas. Performance standards are based more on judgement and reflect a scale of success. (p.306)
Prior to CCSS, all states and districts were responsible for creating their own standards to guide curriculum planning and assessments. Standards were initially developed to help guide teachers to create curriculum based on more rigorous outcomes on what students should be able to do. (p. 302)
Common Core Standards:
If you live in one of the 42 states that adopted CCSS, this tremendously influences your curriculum development. CCSS were created to “bring uniformity” (p. 304) to the country’s education system. The intent was to create standards that have an increase in rigor, higher expectations for student learning, are consistent and understandable, and are research-based. While some states have adopted new names for their standards, the content of the standards remain the same. (p. 304)
These are another set of standards to be used by state, school, teachers, and parents to create and assess curriculum. In addition to creating standards, the association has also created standard related activities. This force may not be as strong as the others discussed in this branch. (p. 306)
Parkay, F.W., Anctil, E.J., & Hass, G. (2014).
Curriculum leadership: Readings for developing quality educational programs
. Upper Saddle, New Jersey: Pearson : Education, Inc.
Color Coding: Sara-Red, Ridvan- Black, Amy- Purple, Amber- Green