Puerperium and lactation (changes during the puerperium (Changes in the…
Puerperium and lactation
- Nonlactating women – 25-35 days postpartum
- Lactating women – 6 weeks to 6 months, to the end of lactation
- Ovulation suppression is due to prolactin levels, which remains elevated 3 weeks after delivery in nonlactating women and 6 weeks in lactating women.
- Estrogen levels fall after delivery in all mothers and remain suppressed in lactating women.
- two main hormons influencing breast tissue during pregnancy:
Estrogen: increases the number and the size of the ducts
Progesterone: increases the number of alveoli
- Suckling stimulates two reflexes:
the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland releases Prolactin, it induces the alveoli to secrete milk
the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland releases Oxytocin, it causes ejection of milk
- Colostrum, which is rich in antibodies,
is secreted in late pregnancy and the production increases after delivery.
- Clostrum is the first fluid secreted from the breasts and is rich in proteins, especially immmunoglobulins. It is less rich in fats and carbohydrates.
- Within 3 days, full milk flow becomes established and provides the complete food for the child for 3-4 months.
Mammogenesis – the process of growth and development of the mammary gland
Laktogenesis – preparation of the mammary glad for milk production
Galaktogenesis – milk production
Galaktopoesis – maintenance of milk production
Galaktokinesis – excretion of milk