Topic 4 - Oscillations and Waves (4.1 - Oscillations (Describing periodic…
Topic 4 - Oscillations and Waves
4.1 - Oscillations
Oscillations that repeat in the same time period, maintaining this constant time property no matter what amplitude changes due to damping occur
Because of this isochronicity of oscillations a pendulum is such an important element of a clock
Describing periodic motion
: a repeated pattern
: time duration of a cycle
: when object is at rest and its displacement (x) is zero.
Amplitude (x, subscript 0)
: maximum value of the displacement
: number of oscillations completed per unit time; SI unit: Hz (when time is in seconds as well)
With frequency being the number of oscillations per second and period the time for one oscillation, the relationship between the two:
T = 1/f
Simple Harmonic Motion (SMH)
In order to perform SHM, an object must have a restoring force acting on it
The magnitude of the force (and therefore
to the displacement of the body from a fixed point.
The direction of the force (and therefore the
) is always towards that fixed point.
The difference between the tension and the weight provides the restoring force - the one that tends to return the mass to its equilibrium position.
Acceleration is proportional to -displacement, aka
a = -kx
4.2 - Travelling Waves
4.3 - Wave Characteristics
4.4 - Wave Behaviour
4.5 - Standing Waves